Korean drama wikipedia

Korean drama wikipedia DEFAULT

History of Korean television drama

Korean television drama, sometimes known as 'K-Drama', refers to Korean-language television shows of the drama genre produced in South Korea.

Korean drama began in May 1956 with the film Death Row Prisoner, directed by Choi Chang Bong. The genre rose in popularity through the 1960s and 70s with the growth of Korean broadcasting companies, and began showing on colour television in 1981.

In the 1990s and 2000s, youth-oriented, soap-opera style Korean dramas took hold, and pushed the Korean drama genre into the international sphere. They have since contributed to the worldwide spread of Korean culture, known as the "Korean Wave".

Start of Korean drama in 1956[edit]

In May 1956, commercial broadcasting company HLKZ-TV opened. Its first film was Death Row Prisoner, directed by Choi Chang Bong,[1] which was based on Holwash Hall's story.[citation needed]

1960s Korean drama[edit]

And with the opening of KBS-TV at the end of December 61, television dramas began to gain momentum.[2] In the early 60s, single-act dramas such as "Friday Theater" and "Continuous Historical Drama" were aired, and daily soap operas were the main ones entering the late 60s.[3]

The most popular drama in the '60s was "Sajikgol Old West Room," which aired in 1967, and the first daily soap opera was "Snowfall" by Dongyang TV in 1968. Meanwhile, "The Frog Husband," which aired on MBC in 1969, caused a social stir for the first time in the nation's drama history, based on an affair.[3]

And, Yuho, who is also known as the lyricist of the wise man's song "Moon of Silla," has earned fame as a first-generation drama writer. In 1945, at the age of 25, he began writing radio dramas at Gyeongseong Broadcasting Station, and he also had great success as a drama writer, starting with the TBC drama "First Snow" which opened in 1961. Double-income couples and "You're Here in Straw Century" gained explosive popularity, and the broadcasting station even organized a soap opera called "Yuho Theater" named after the writer.[4]

The drama written by Yoo-ho became a hot topic right after the show aired, and the broadcaster invited viewers to the front of the TV every time, so the broadcaster took him to the point where he provided a car in addition to the manuscript fee and full-time fee. In the 1960s, Yoo Ho showed off his powerful power in the drama industry, calling it "TBC itself."[4]

The best star writer of the '60s was Hanunsa, as much as Yu-ho. Having made his debut as a full-time writer in 1957 after serving as a novelist and reporter, he quickly became the center of a CBS drama. Starting with the first TV daily drama, "It's Snowing," "Hello, Seoul," etc., the 60s and 70s were the "era of Hanunsa."[4]

He has shown outstanding ability as a screenwriter as well as a TV drama. With his masterpieces such as <To Do This Life> <Hyunhae-tan knows> <South and North Red Mahura> and <Three Narutors>, he has established a solid position across TV and movies.[4]

1970s Korean drama[edit]

Tongyang Broadcasting Company logo

In 1972, TBC had a huge impact on the drama industry in the '70s through a work called Yeoro. And in the 70s, the increase in broadcasting companies led to competition among the three broadcasting stations - KBS, TBC, and MBC - to produce dramas.[5] Entering the 70s, three broadcasters—KBS, TBC, and MBC—competed in soap operas.[6]

Broadcast on TBC from 1970, "Ah-SSI" depicts a typical Korean female figure who lives at the expense of herself for her family, with the turbulent period of history ranging from the 1910s to the 70s as the backdrop of the times. In addition, "Yeoro," which aired on KBS in 1972, ran a popular road, drawing sympathy from viewers, with its silly but pure protagonist, frugal marital love and the pain of separated families. Other major dramas in the 70s include "The Investigation Team Leader," "Jang Hee-bin" and "Hometown of Legend."[3]

And in 1971, the drama 'The Investigation Team Leader' was also very popular at that time. "The Investigation Team Leader," which began airing in March 1971, aired a total of 880 episodes until its end in October 1989. The writers alone went through Kim Jung-hwan, Yoon Dae-sung, Shin Myung-soon, Lee Sang-Hyun and Park Chan-sung, while the directors also started with Heo Gyu, followed by Park Chul, Yoo Heung-Ryul, Lee Yeon-Heon, Ko Seok-man and Choi Jong-soo. "The Investigation Team Leader," which began airing in March 1971, aired a total of 880 episodes until its end in October 1989. The writers alone went through Kim Jung-hwan, Yoon Dae-sung, Shin Myung-soon, Lee Sang-Hyun, and Park Chan-sung, while the directors also started with Heo Gyu, followed by Park Chul, Yoo Heung-Ryul, Lee Yeon-Heon, Ko Seok-man, and Choi Jong-soo.[7]

1980s Korean drama[edit]

On December 1, 1980, South Korea became the 81st country in the world to open the era of color TV broadcasting. Show programs with colorful stages have sprung up and the genre of dramas has expanded as the amount of outdoor filming has increased. The most popular actresses of the '80s were Won Mi-kyung, Lee Mi-sook, Hwang Shin-hye, Choi Myung-gil and Jang Mi-hee. Even in the 1980s, the work of Kim Soo-Hyun, an undisputedly popular writer, also topped the rating list.[8]

In that time, the best star writer was Kim Soo-Hyun. In 1984, she achieved his heyday with nearly 80% viewer ratings with the drama "Love and Truth," which depicts the fate of her reversed sisters, and once again showed off his potential to write myths with "Love and Ambition" in 1987. It is at this time that the brand "Kim Soo-Hyun Drama" is clearly engraved in the head of the general public.[4]

Sand Castle, which was broadcast in 1988, was an unprecedented hit. "Sanding," an eight-part affair starring Park Geun-Hyung, Kim Hye-ja and Kim Chung-Eun, was a filial work that strengthened the Kim Soo-Hyun era with explosive support from female viewers. After the announcement of the cancellation of the game broadcast during the Olympics, the MBC Drama Bureau received a flurry of protest calls, which eventually led to a normal broadcast. [4]

Kim Soo-Hyun's power was so strong that she was able to penetrate the sky, but rival star writers were born one after another. The main character was definitely Na Yeon-sook. Na Yeon-sook, who gained fame as "Kim Soo-hyun's Rival" in the 1980s, quickly emerged as a hit writer of the time, writing KBS' "Daldongne" and "Normal People." [4]

Among them, none other than KBS 2TV's "Time of Ambition," which aired in 1989. The drama starred Lee Myung-bak in a former president of Hyundai Engineering & Construction Co., boasted huge popularity, together in front of the male viewers TV. Thanks to the drama, Lee Myung-bak is called 'The 9-to-5' and lawmakers, market, and served as president for 15 years. Yu In-chon, who starred in the drama also in charge of the Minister of Culture Lee Myung-bak administration.[4]

Kim Jung-soo, famous for MBC's MBCAll-Won Diary, was also one of the star writers of the 1980s. Having helped turn rural drama <Wonwon Diary> into a national drama, she went through <Winter Fog> and <Happy Woman> to show her writing skills as a drama writer.[4]

It also hinted at the legitimacy of the regime through the "500th Anniversary of the Joseon Dynasty" and "Nationality," and political dramas such as "The First Republic" were also aired. Popular dramas in the '80s are "ordinary people," which contain the joys and sorrows and conflicts of So Si-min through the daily lives of a family. Other popular dramas in the '80s include "Daldongne," "Love and Truth," "Jeonwon Diary" and "Three Han-bung Families."[3]

1990s Korean drama[edit]

South Korean actor Jang Dong-gun

Popular TV dramas in the 1980s and 1990s boosted real-time water consumption, which reduced tap water usage and even vehicle operation on the road during each broadcast time. [9] The '90s are the heyday of youth and trendy dramas. Starting with "Our Heaven," "The Last Match" and "Jealousy" have become popular, producing numerous popular stars such as Jang Dong-gun, Choi Jin-sil and Shim Eun-ha. Also, a cheerful home drama was popular. "What's Love?" "Daughter's House" and "Men in a Bathhouse" are representative works. In particular, "What's Love?" which comically depicts the story of a patriarchal, self-confessed family and a peaceful, democratic family, ranked second in viewership ever. [3]

Sandglass, which left the famous line "Am I trembling now," became popular, portraying the gloomy 80s situation realistically. Broadcast in 1999, "The Trap of Youth" took over the small screen, portraying the story of a woman avenging a man who betrayed her. In particular, Shim Eun-ha, who plays Seo Yoon-hee, who left the famous line, "I'm going to destroy everything," which is still talked about, is considered the epitome of the villain's performance.[3]

2000s Korean drama[edit]

In the 2000s, soap operas based on stimulated materials began to become popular.[4] In the early and mid-2000s, dramas led the early Korean Wave. Bae Yong-joon and Choi Ji-woo, the main characters of "Winter Sonata," have sparked a Korean Wave craze in Japan and the explosive popularity of dramas has led to a 35.5 percent increase in Japanese tourists in 2004. Daejanggeum, which aired in 2003, was also exported to more than 60 countries around the world as the top contributor to the Korean Wave. Daejanggeum also had a phenomenal audience rating of over 80 percent in Iran, barren land of the Korean Wave. In the 2000s, modern movies such as "Autumn Fairy Tales," "The Little Mermaid," "All In" and "My Name is Kim Sam Soon" were also popular, while historical dramas such as "Queen Myeongseong," "Lady Incheonha" and "Jumong" were also in their prime. [3]

And also, a series of infidelity dramas focused on individual desires appeared. Kim Hee-ae's "My Man's Woman" (2007), who turned into a lion-headed infidelity woman, and "Temptation of Wife" (2009), which gave birth to Min So-hee, who came back from her fortune-telling, have emerged as subjects that women show their desires differently than before.[10]

Furthermore, in the 2000s, the number of viewers of foreign dramas increased and their tastes diversified. In particular, criminal investigations have become popular with the success of American dramas. In Korea, dramas such as "Byul Soon-gum," "Special Crime Scandal," "TEN," "Hit," and "Sign" have been relatively active in Korean genres, crossing cable channels and terrestrial channels. Like the drama "Hit" that actively utilizes the melodrama code and "Sign," which borrows the narratives of American dramas, melodrama and narrative dramas were evaluated as Korean-style genres. In addition, "The Ghost" and "The Chaser" have shattered viewers' hopes for a sweet story. It was notable that realistic narratives were added to the plot of the genre.[11]

2010s Korean drama[edit]

A major feature of dramas in the 2010s is that they opened the heyday of the so-called Korean-style romance fantasy genre, combining a world of fantasy, which is far from realistic, but persuasive production, acting, and script. Compared to the previous era, male characters had excellent abilities, but they were boundlessly vulnerable to their own women, and women's characters were not necessarily protected even if they were poor according to the times, but they were more enterprising in talking about their own arguments and solving problems on their own. Just like fantasy tendencies, attempts to reinterpret subjects or characters that were difficult to see in existing romance movies such as supernatural powers, aliens, goblins, and Yoon-hoi were also notable.[12]

Lee Min-ho, Kim Soo-hyun, Song Joong-ki, Kim Woo-bin, Park Shin-hye, and Seo Hyun-jin emerged as new drama stars representing the 2010s, while actors in their 30s and 40s, including Gong Yoo, Lee Dong-wook, Song Hye-kyo, Jeon Ji-hyun, Ha Ji-won and Jang Dong-gun, also opened their second heyday through dramas. While the main targets of the Korean Wave were Japan and Southeast Asia until the 1990s and the 2000s, the Korean Wave craze began in China in the 2010s, and drama was at the center of this craze. In addition to the "Chicken and Beer" craze brought by "My Love from the Star," famous lines, famous scenes, fashion, OSTs, and major filming locations in China have caused syndromes there.[12]

However, ignoring the assessment that it is the golden age of drama, the 2010s were the worst Dark Ages for historical period dramas, especially in the field of "Daeha Drama," called traditional historical dramas. In fact, the production of historical dramas has slowed down since the late 2000s, as major dramas dealing with the Three Kingdoms Period and Korea History suffered a series of crushing defeats in ratings and completeness. In addition, as the status of terrestrial broadcasters in the drama market decreased in the 2010s and the market environment was reorganized around the cable and general programming, the atmosphere of avoiding high-quality historical dramas began to form. [12]

And the drama market, which was led by only three terrestrial broadcasters, has changed since the 2010s as general programming and cable channels jumped in.[13] Wearing a televised 'Stars from you' in 2014 is a new Korean history. Japan, unlike huge popularity and profits of scale in China with the center's popularity and opened an era 'The 3.0'. Followed by 'Pinocchio' reached the highest price China was sold for $28 million (about 300 million 1127 million won) per session.[6]

On the other hand, the multichannel era for general service and cable TV breakthroughs. Cable drama 'Reply 1997' and 'Reply 1994' is it offers nostalgic value in the 1990s and the best ratings ever. The work of the pros and cons of being green tvn 'Misaeng' receiving enthusiastic support of the office workers and caused a social sensation.[14]


  1. ^"명복을 빕니다 동아방송-HLKZ 개국 주도, 최창봉 한국방송인회 이사장 May you rest in peace, Mr. Choi Chang-bong, chairman of the Korean Broadcasting Association, led the opening of Dong-A Broadcasting System-HLKZ". dongA.com. 정양환 Jung Yang Hwan. 30 December 2016.
  2. ^"[그때의 사회면] "TV 사자" 장사진 친 인파 [The Social Aspects of the day] "Let's buy a TV" A long crowd". seoulshinmun. 손성진 Son Sung Jin. 9 April 2018.
  3. ^ abcdefg"[광복 70] 첫 불륜 드라마 '개구리 남편', 최고 시청률 '첫사랑'[Independence 70] First affair drama "Frog Husband," the first drama of an affair, highest ratings, "First Love"". news1. 한솔 Hansol. 5 January 2015.
  4. ^ abcdefghij"김수현, 노희경, 김은숙... 최고의 드라마 작가는 누구? Kim Soo-hyun, Roh Hee-kyung, Kim Eun-sook... Who is the best drama writer?". star.ohmynews.com. 김성규 KimSeonggyu. 3 August 2018.
  5. ^"추억의 70년대…드라마 '여로'에 웃고 울고". dongA.com. 5 March 2002.
  6. ^ ab"[광복 70] 첫 불륜 드라마 '개구리 남편', 최고 시청률 '첫사랑'[Independence 70] First affair drama "Frog Husband," the first drama of an affair, highest ratings, "First Love"". news1. 한솔 Hansol. 5 January 2015.
  7. ^"[아이콘, 그때 그 시절]'수사반장'과 '전원일기', 그리고 최불암 [iKON, Back then] 'Investigation Team Leader', 'Rural Diary', and Choi Bul-am". sports.khan. 오광수 Oh Kwang Soo. 19 June 2012.
  8. ^"김수현이 뭐길래, 지금도 '최고 드라마작가'What is Kim Soo-hyun, 'the best drama writer' even now?". Yes24.com. 엄지혜 Um ji Hye. 28 February 2013.
  9. ^"[한창완의 문화로 내일만들기]한국 드라마의 힘 [Making Tomorrow with Han Chang-wan's Culture] The power of Korean drama". news.khan. 한창완 Han Chang Wan. 31 January 2019.
  10. ^"[D기획┃불륜드라마 불패②] "사랑에 빠진 게 죄는 아니잖아"…법이 바꾼 트렌드 [Undefeated D-Planned Infidelity Drama 2]"It's not a crime to fall in love..."the changing trend of the law". dailian. 부수정 Boo Soo Jung. 4 May 2020.
  11. ^"이것은 드라마가 아니다?드라마 <추적자>와 <유령>을 통해 본 한국식 장르물, 현실 서사의 귀환 This is not a drama? The Return of Korean Genre, Reality narration, which I saw in dramas <The Chaser> and <The Ghost>". hankyoreh. 신소윤 Shin So Yoon. 22 June 2012.
  12. ^ abc"2010년대를 빛낸 최고의 한국 드라마는? What is the best Korean drama that made the 2010s shine?". star.ohmynews.com 이준목 Lee Joon Mok. 30 December 2019.
  13. ^"[팝컬처]영화야? 드라마야? 영화·드라마 경계 무너진다 [Pop Culture] Is it a movie? Is it a drama? The boundaries of movies and dramas are falling apart". www.sedaily.com. 김현진 Kim Hyun Jin. 2 April 2020.
  14. ^"[광복 70] 첫 불륜 드라마 '개구리 남편', 최고 시청률 '첫사랑'[Independence 70] First affair drama "Frog Husband," the first drama of an affair, highest ratings, "First Love"". news1. 한솔 Hansol. 5 January 2015.
Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Korean_television_drama

Korean drama

Television program genre

Korean drama (Korean: 한국드라마; Hanja: 韓國드라마; RR: han-guk deurama), more popularly known as K-dramas, are television series in the Korean language, made in South Korea. Korean dramas are popular worldwide, partially due to the spread of Korean popular culture (the "Korean Wave"), and their widespread availability via streaming services which often offer subtitles in multiple languages. Many K-dramas have been adapted throughout the world, and some have had great impact on other countries.[1] Some of the most famous dramas have been broadcast via traditional television channels in other countries. For example, Dae Jang Geum (2003) was sold to 150 countries. K-dramas have attracted attention for their fashion, style and culture all over the world. The rise in popularity of Korean dramas had led to a great boost to fashion line.


South Korea started to broadcast television series in the 1960s. In the 1990s, traditional historical series transformed into the present miniseries format, creating the notion of fusion sageuks.

A single director usually leads Korean dramas, which are often written by a single screenwriter. This often leads to each drama having distinct directing and dialogue styles. This differs from American television series, which can rely on multiple directors and writers working together.

Series set in contemporary times typically run for a single season and usually contain 12 to 24 episodes of 60 minutes each. Historical series may be longer, with up to 200 episodes, but they also generally run for only one season. This differs from American television series, where the first season does not have a definitive end as the plot is being set up to last for multiple seasons.[citation needed]

The broadcast time for drama series has been 22:00 to 23:00, with episodes airing on two consecutive nights: Mondays and Tuesdays, Wednesdays and Thursdays, or weekends. Most of these drama series appear on each of the nationwide networks: Seoul Broadcasting System (SBS), Korean Broadcasting System (KBS), Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) and on the cable channels, including Joongang Tongyang Broadcasting Company (JTBC), Channel A, Total Variety Network (TVN), and Orion Cinema Network (OCN). Some of drama series might turn into seasonal serials just like famous American weekday drama series.

The 19:00 to 20:00 evening time slot usually have been reserved for daily dramas, which run every night from Monday through Friday. Dramas in these slots are in the telenovela format, rarely running over 200 episodes. Unlike American soap operas, these daily dramas are not broadcast during the daytime. Instead, the daytime schedule often includes reruns of the flagship dramas. The night time dailies can achieve very high ratings. During late 2000s, for example, not only the weekend series First Wives' Club recorded 41.3%, according to TNS Korea,[3] and also the evening series Temptation of Wife peaked at 40.6%, according to TNS Korea.[4] During early 2010s, as side footnote, KBS1 Weekend Household Opera serials for family like Please Marry Me, Ojakgyo Family, My Husband Got a Family, Wang's Family, and What Happens to My Family? gained such a popularity, reputation and influence.

Many Korean dramas follow the live-shoot model and thus are usually shot within a very tight schedule, sometimes finishing just a few hours before actual broadcast. Screenplays are flexible and may change anytime during production, depending on viewers' feedback, which can be difficult for production teams.

Plots and storylines[edit]

K-dramas have a multitude of different genres such as action dramas, historical dramas, school dramas, medical dramas, legal dramas, or even horror comedies. While most dramas carry romantic elements and deep emotional themes, there are various styles and tones.[5]

The main themes of Korean television dramas are friendship, family values, and love, blending traditional values of Confucianism with Western materialism and individualism.[6]

However, it is an emerging trend amongst Korean dramas to showcase ongoing societal issues of Korean society such as stigma of mental illness,[7] gender inequality, suicide, classism, bullying, spy cameras, corruption, homophobia or racism.[8]


Main article: Sageuk

The term sageuk refers to any Korean television or film drama that is either based on historical figures, incorporates historical events, or uses a historical backdrop. While sageuk literally translates to "historical drama", the term is typically reserved for dramas taking place throughout the course of Korean history.[9]

Since the mid-2000s, some sageuks have achieved major success outside of Korea, such as Asia-Pacific, Central Asia, Greater Middle East, Central and Eastern Europe and Latin America.[10] Sageuks including Dae Jang Geum (Jewel in the Palace), Yi San and Jumong enjoyed strong ratings and high satisfaction ratings in countries such Vietnam, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Fiji and Iran. Jumong, which aired on IRIB (Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting) in 2008, had 85% viewership.[11]


Often centered around a love story, series set in contemporary times often focus on family ties and romantic relationships. Characters are mostly idealized with Korean male protagonists described as handsome, intelligent, emotional, and in search of "one true love". This has also been a contributing factor to the popularity of Korean dramas among women, as the image of Korean men became differentiated from that of other Asian men. The romantic tension typically "is built up so expertly that it is more emotionally resonant when the main couple finally hold hands halfway through the series than when a full-blown bedroom scene happens in an American series". Also, due to Korea's culture, "love scenes rarely progress past kissing" and "even seeing a Deep tongue kiss in a Korean drama is newsworthy".[15]


Early years[edit]

Radio broadcasting, including the broadcasting of radio dramas in Korea, began in 1927 under Japanese rule, with most programming in Japanese and around 30% in Korean. After the Korean War, radio dramas such as Cheongsilhongsil (1954) reflected the country's mood.[17]

Television broadcasting began in 1956 with the launch of an experimental station, HLKZ-TV, which was shut down a few years later due to a fire. The first national television channel was Korean Broadcasting System (KBS), which started up in 1961. The first Korean television film was a 15-minute piece titled The Gate of Heaven (천국의 문, Cheongugui mun), on HLKZ-TV.

The first television series was aired by KBS in 1962. Their commercial competitor, Tongyang Broadcasting (TBC), had a more aggressive program policy and aired controversial dramas as well. The first historical TV series aired was Gukto manri (국토만리), directed by Kim Jae-hyeong (김재형), depicting the Goryeo era.[22] In the 1960s, television sets were of limited availability, thus dramas could not reach a larger audience.

In the 1970s, television sets started to spread among the general population, and dramas switched from portraying dramatic historical figures to introducing national heroes like Lee Sun-shin or Sejong the Great. Contemporary series dealt with personal sufferings, such as Kim Soo-hyun's influential Stepmother (새엄마, Saeeomma), aired by Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) in 1972 and 1973. As technology and funding was limited, Korean channels could not make series in resource-heavy genres like action and science fiction; American and other foreign series were imported instead.


The 1980s saw a change in Korean television, as color TV became available. Modern dramas tried to evoke nostalgia from urban dwellers by depicting rural life. Kim Soo-hyun's first real commercial success, Love and Ambition (사랑과 야망, Saranggwa yamang), aired on MBC in 1987 and is regarded as a milestone of Korean television, having recorded a 78% viewership. "Streets became quiet at around the airing time of the drama as 'practically everyone in the country' was at home in front of the TV", according to The Korea Times.[17] The most outstanding classical historical series of the era is considered to be 500 Years of Joseon (조선왕조500년, Joseonwangjo 500 nyeon), a serial that ran for eight years, consisting of 11 separate series. The serial was produced by Lee Byung-hoon, who later directed one of the biggest international successes of Korean drama, Dae Jang Geum.The 1990s brought another important milestone for Korean television. As technology developed, new opportunities arose, and the beginning of the decade marked the launch of a new commercial channel; Seoul Broadcasting System (SBS), which facilitated and re-initiated a race for catching viewers' attention. The first real commercial success among Korean television series was Eyes of Dawn (여명의 눈동자, Yeomyeongui nundongja), aired in 1991 by MBC, starring Chae Shi-ra and Choi Jae-sung. The series led the viewers through turbulent times from the Japanese rule to the Korean War. New channel SBS also produced successful series, one of them being Sandglass in 1995. Sandglass was a "trendy drama", which the Korean Culture and Information Service considers an important milestone, having changed the way Korean dramas are made by introducing a new format. In this decade, the new miniseries format became widespread, with 12 to 24 episodes. This era marked the start of export for Korean dramas, setting off the Korean Wave.

The beginning years of the 2000s gave birth to famous Korean dramas and also marked the period of overseas distribution of Korean dramas. Some popular ones are Full House, Autumn in my heart and Winter Sonata. It is marks the birth of a new genre, called "fusion sageuk", essentially changing the ways to produce historical series, with successful pieces such as Hur Jun, Damo and Dae Jang Geum.

Since the 2010s, "web dramas", has become a popular genre. It is a short form of drama mostly streamed on video streaming service such as Naver TV and YouTube.[citation needed] It started to take over the popularity of conventional dramas among 10s and 20s because the shorter runtime, and often feature trendy contents which teenagers are easy to sympathize with.[29]

Webtoon dramas are also another drama type that is gaining popularity. These dramas are adapted from comic strips called webtoons. As such, the plot is more imaginary instead of realistic, and add to the diverse content of K-dramas. Some notable webtoon dramas are Cheese in the Trap, Misaeng and Itaewon Class.[citation needed]

The late 2010s and 2020s saw newfound attention of K-dramas from international markets.[30]Bong Joon-ho's 2019 film Parasite became the first South Korean film to win the Academy Award for Best Picture, in addition to numerous other film accolades.[31]Netflix had begun seeking productions from South Korea and other countries since around 2018 to expand offerings for their service with a growing international audience. These efforts came to fruition when Hwang Dong-hyuk's Squid Game drew in more than 111 million viewers within 17 days of its released in September 2021, become the service's most-watched program.[30]


Korean series were originally produced in house by the television channels themselves, but have been outsourced to independent production companies since the 2000s. In 2012, as much as 75% of all K-dramas were produced this way. Competition is fierce among these companies; out of 156 registered firms, only 34 produced dramas were actually aired in 2012. The budget of the production is shared between the producing company and the broadcaster, with the broadcasting channel covering around 50% of expenses usually. If top stars and famous scriptwriters are employed, they may cover even more. The rest of the budget has to be brought in by the production company with the help of sponsors. In the case of product placements, income is shared by the producer and the channel. The channel keeps 100% of the advertisement income during airtime; this could amount to ₩300–400 million. A typical Korean drama may cost as much as ₩250 million per episode, and historical dramas cost more than that. For example, Gu Family Book cost ₩500 million per episode.

In Korea, much of the budget is spent on the appearance fees of top stars since they are heavily dependent on celebrities' popularity. In some cases, the actors may take up as much as 55–65% of the whole budget, while it is 20–30% in Japan, and roughly 10% in the United States as dramas there tend to avoid casting famous actors when starting off. Everything else, including salaries of lesser-known actors, extras, and technical staff, location rent and other expenses, have to be covered from the remaining amount. Often, production companies overrun their budgets and cannot pay salaries. In 2012, actors held a demonstration in front of the headquarters of KBS, expressing their concerns. Actors are usually paid after the last episode is aired at the end of the month. In series made by smaller production companies for cable channels, there have been cases where the companies went bankrupt and could not pay their actors and crew, while the channel denied all responsibility, claiming all liability was with the bankrupt production firm. Producer Kim Jong-hak spent as much as ₩10 billion on Faith, which was considered a commercial failure, resulting in the inability of Kim to pay crew salaries and other overheads. Kim, who had produced successful dramas such as Eyes of Dawn and Sandglass, committed suicide after he was accused of embezzlement.[34][35] The biggest stars may earn as much as ₩100 million per episode.Bae Yong-joon, the star of Winter Sonata, reportedly received ₩250 million per episode for The Legend in 2007.

Filmmaking process[edit]

As producing a series involves high expenses, production companies seek to shoot the episodes in the shortest time possible. In contrast to practices elsewhere, the first four episodes of Korean series are usually shot in advance, but the rest are shot continuously as the series is being aired. Scripts are not finished in advance, and may change according to viewer feedback and viewership ratings, where popular characters receive increased screen time and plotlines are changed to match audience expectations.[39] These changes may occur a few hours before daily shooting, and the crew might receive only a few ready pages. The production usually works with three camera crews, who work in a rotating manner to speed up filming. Because of unregulated script changes and tight shooting schedules, actors are almost continuously on standby, and have no time to leave the set or sleep properly. The Korean media have a separate word to describe irregular, short sleeps that actors resort to, in often uncomfortable positions, or within the set: jjok-jam (쪽잠), or "side-sleeping". Dramas usually air two episodes a week, one after the other, with the following episodes having to be shot within the intervening five days. Some Korean actors have admitted to receiving IV therapy during filming, due to extreme schedules and exhaustion.[40] Nonetheless the live-shoot model remains widely used since the production team can react to real time audience feedback.[39]

Production teams originally sent two tapes to the channels; a primary copy and a backup copy. However, due to the tight filming schedules, a 70-minute episode might arrive at the broadcasting station on seven separate tapes in ten-minute installments. It happens that while the episode is being broadcast, the crew would be still shooting the last minutes or cutting the rest of the episode. During the airing of the nineteenth episode of Man from the Equator, screens countrywide went black for 10 minutes. Actor Kwon Sang-woo was openly complaining that he was still shooting Queen of Ambition 30 minutes before the last episode began airing. In South Korea, some production teams still do planning and scheduling manually, instead of using dedicated software.

From late 2014 onwards due to the popularity of Korean dramas abroad, especially the success of My Love from the Star in China, producers have increasingly been pitching and pre-selling the overseas broadcast and streaming rights of their dramas. This has given production teams the budget to move away from the live shoot basis to one in which the drama is completed before broadcast. In 2016, dramas such as Descendants of the Sun, Uncontrollably Fond, Moon Lovers: Scarlet Heart Ryeo and Hwarang: The Poet Warrior Youth were all pre-produced before airing. Nonetheless, some pre-produced episodes are often re-edited or even reshot the day of airing, due to audience feedback.[39]

The larger broadcasting companies have their own dedicated shooting locations for historical dramas, with extensive and elaborate sets. MBC's series are shot at MBC Drama in Gyeonggi,[42] while KBS dramas utilize the Mungyeongsaejae Studio (문경새재 KBS촬영장) in North Gyeongsang[43] and their studio in Suwon.[44]

Production companies[edit]

See also: Category:Television production companies of South Korea

Independent production companies are classified into:


Actors and actresses[edit]

Further information: List of South Korean actresses and List of South Korean male actors

The leading actors of Korean dramas have become popular outside of South Korea, due to the Korean Wave.

In the 2000s, it became customary to cast popular K-pop idols in dramas. Initially, this generated mixed reactions. Their appearance had provoked predominantly negative reactions outside their fandom because singers and dancers acting outside of their musical circle was regarded as unprofessional. Also, some idols were criticized for poor acting. Nowadays, this has become much more common feature in Korean dramas, as the public has been getting more used to the concept of "idol actors" and some idols have become known for their excellent acting skills.[45] Their critical reception is still mixed, however, some of them, like Bae Suzy, IU, Seo In-guk, Ok Taecyeon and Im Yoon-ah, became successful as actors and actresses.[47][48]

There were also instances of children taking up careers as child actors or actresses, usually portraying either the younger versions of some characters or the children of the adult characters from dramas. Subsequently, there were some child actors and actresses who continue pursuing acting careers even after reaching adulthood, and with some achieving success even after adulthood. Notably, such people include actors like Yoo Seung-ho and Yeo Jin-goo; and actresses like Kim So-hyun, Lee Se-young, Nam Ji-hyun, Kim Hyang-gi, Park Shin-hye and Kim Yoo-jung.[49]

Scriptwriters and directors[edit]

Scriptwriters and directors of Korean dramas are often as well known as actors are. An overwhelming majority of scriptwriters (90% according to the Beijing Metro Reader) are women, who not only write love stories but action series as well.[50] Compared to Korean cinema, television is more appealing for scriptwriters as contract conditions are better, acknowledgment is greater, and the salary is higher.

Famous scriptwriters tend to have a say in their field.[51] The most well-known scriptwriters include the Hong sisters, who wrote popular series such as My Girl, You're Beautiful and My Girlfriend Is a Nine-Tailed Fox; Kim Eun-sook, the screenwriter of Lovers in Paris, Secret Garden, The Heirs, Descendants of the Sun and Guardian: The Lonely and Great God; Lee Kyung-hee, famous for I'm Sorry, I Love You and The Innocent Man; male writer Choi Wan-kyu of Midas and Triangle; Noh Hee-kyung, the author of That Winter, the Wind Blows; and It's Okay, That's Love; and Park Ji-eun, who wrote My Husband Got a Family, My Love from the Star, The Producers, Legend of the Blue Sea and Crash Landing on You.[52]

Acknowledged TV directors include Lee Byung-hoon, who directed Hur-Jun, Dae Jang Geum and Yi San;Kim Jong-hak, the director of Eyes of Dawn, Sandglass, The Legend and The Great Doctor;[53] and Pyo Min-soo [ko], the director of Full House, Worlds Within and Iris II.[54]

While scriptwriters are mostly women, directors are usually men.[55] Some female directors have risen to prominence, such as Lee Na-jeong (이나정), who directed The Innocent Man,[56] and Lee Yun-jeong (이윤정), whose most famous works are The 1st Shop of Coffee Prince and Heart to Heart. The latter director is also the first female television producer employed by Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC).[57]


Music plays an important role in Korean dramas. Original soundtracks, abbreviated OST's, are explicitly made for each series, and in contrast to American series, fans have a need to buy the soundtrack album of dramas. This trend started in the 1990s, when producers swapped purely instrumental soundtracks for songs performed by popular K-pop singers. Tom Larsen, director of YA Entertainment, a distributor of Korean TV series, thinks that Korean soundtracks are polished enough musically to be considered standalone hits.[58]

During the 2000s, it became customary for lead actors to participate in original soundtracks, also partially due to the employment of K-pop stars as actors. Actor Lee Min-ho, and leader of boy band SS501, Kim Hyun-joong both recorded songs for Boys Over Flowers, while the actors of You're Beautiful formed a fictional band and held concerts, where they perform the soundtracks live.[59][60][61]

OST songs of popular K-dramas can also become hits on regular music charts, with good sales of both physical and digital albums. The chart performance of the OST songs usually co-relate to the popularity of the drama. Songs from the OST of Secret Garden for example, had high digital sales and high rankings on music charts.[62]My Destiny, performed by Lyn for My Love from the Star, led music charts in Hong Kong, Taiwan, South Korea, and other Asian countries.[63] It also won the Best OST award at the 2014 Baeksang Arts Awards.[64] The soundtrack album of You're Beautiful sold 57,000 physical copies.[65] Performers of OST songs for action series Iris held two concerts in Japan in front of an audience of 60,000 people.[66]

Although the songs in Korean dramas may have only a selective few or are repetitive, the choosing of the songs are not that easy of a process. An example of this can be found in the OST for the Korean drama: Guardian: The Lonely and Great God. Songs usually are made to convey emotions or scenes especially in dramas and the emotion was assigned to be conveyed by Rocoberry was suffering and beauty. Rocoberry is a Korean indie pop duo with the members of Roco and conan and they are famous for composing songs in Korean dramas. Even though they had quite the experience with composing songs, for Guardian: The Lonely and Great God, they had to create 12 different compositions for this drama until finally one of their most famous songs I Will Go to You Like the First Snow was chosen. Not only did it take 12 compositions for this song to be chosen but after the approval of this songs, there had to be 7 rewrites until it was finally complete and met the satisfaction standards of the production team. link The song was used in only two episodes despite the hard process. The song was placed in two scenes that later on were shown to be connected to each other and also became some of the most important scenes in the drama. This is only the beginning of understanding how much time and effort goes into the choosing of songs for these types of dramas and how they can enhance a scene in many different ways.[67]

OST composers usually look for singers who have previously had success in the genre. Songs are written to reflect the mood of the series and their structure. Sometimes performers give their own songs for a series. For example, Baek Ji-young thought her song That Man, originally written for her own album, would fit Secret Garden. There are popular OST singers who are often employed, like Baek Ji-young, Lyn, and Lee Seung-cheol.[68] Sometimes, foreign singers are invited to perform songs for Korean OST. For instance, Swedish artist Lasse Lindh sang several songs for series like Angel Eyes, Soul Mate, I Need Romance, and Guardian: The Lonely and Great God.

Rating system[edit]

Further information: Television content rating systems § South Korea

The television rating system is regulated by the Korea Communications Commission, and was implemented in 2000. According to the system, programs, including Korean dramas, are rated according to the following principles (ratings irrelevant to dramas are omitted):[69]

  • Republic_Of_Korea_Broadcasting-TV_Rating_System(12).svg: programs that may be inappropriate for children under 12, such as mild violence, suggestive themes or language.
  • Republic_Of_Korea_Broadcasting-TV_Rating_System(15).svg: programs that may be inappropriate for children under 15. Most dramas and talk shows are rated this way. These programs may include moderate or strong adult themes, language, sexual inference, and violence.
  • Republic_Of_Korea_Broadcasting-TV_Rating_System(19).svg: programs intended for adults only. These programs might include adult themes, sexual situations, frequent use of strong language and disturbing scenes of violence.


According to a researcher at the University of Vienna, popularity of Korean dramas have their foundation in Confucian values they transmit, which Asian viewers can easily identify with. Respect for elders, filial piety, family-orientedness, and the display of perceived "Asian moral values" play an important role in Korean series. YA Entertainment, the American distributor of Korean dramas, believes that part of the attractiveness of these series come from the quality of camera work, scenic locations, and spectacular costumes, which make the "final product very stylish and attractive, with arguably some of the highest TV production values in the world." Korean series follow their own formula, are innovative and don't conform to Western television productions. Stephan Lee from Entertainment Weekly called Korean dramas "fascinating and weirdly comforting".[72]

Exports of Korean series yielded US$37.5 million in 2003, which was three times higher than the amount reached in 1999. According to data from Korea Creative Content Agency, in 2013 K-dramas constituted 82% of the culture content export of South Korea, with an income of $167 million, which is four times more than a decade before.

A driving force behind the rising popularity is the intense involvement of fans. Because of the live-shooting production of K-dramas, Korean-speaking fans have the opportunity to participate in their creation—a unique phenomenon in the mass media world. They can influence the content of later shows in the series through complaints and suggestions, which are frequently adopted by the production teams.

The global community of non-Korean-speaking fans, on the other hand, is more involved in the consumption aspects: Fans share their opinions through tweets and comments on newsgroups (for example, the Soompi discussion forum) as well as reviews and recaps on websites and blogs. However, the impact of their social media activity goes beyond the fan community. It spreads the word about the K-drama genre to social connections like acquaintances, friends and family (e.g. Facebook friends or followers on Twitter) and thereby generally raises its popularity. But it also has an effect on the creation of new dramas. It influences the popularity of certain dramas, leading to higher demand for those videos from streaming sites and additional income for broadcasters. When a substantial profit results, it raises not only the prestige of people involved in the production but also provides feedback for production teams and indirectly influences future productions.

International reception[edit]

East Asia[edit]


In China, South Korean programs on Chinese government TV networks accounted for more than all other foreign programs combined in 2006.[81]Hong Kong has its own channel for airing Korean dramas, TVB J2, but ATV also airs Korean series in prime-time slots.[82]My Love from the Star received enthusiastic feedback from China. It was viewed 40 billion times on numerous Chinese video sites.[83] The drama also spurred interest about Korea, shown by China's increased consumption of Korean products such as Chi Maek (chicken and beer) and Korean cosmetics.[84] Due to the success of Korean dramas in China, some dramas have been compiled to create feature-length films by combining all episodes into one film. The prodigious popularity of Korean dramas in the country has, on some occasions, been caught in the crossfire over diplomatic issues between China and South Korea. Most notable being the THAAD deployment in South Korea which resulted in the blocking of Korean dramas on streaming services across the country in late February 2017.[85] Following the block, Chinese TV shows showcasing Chinese culture and other similar content replaced Korean content on TV networks' prime time schedules in the country.[86] In November 2017, the ban was lifted unannounced following the appearance of Kpop groups on national TV and the move to resume importation of Korean dramas by Chinese streaming services.[87] In China, apps like IQiyi, which is currently also available in Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan and some other countries in multiple different subtitles, are available to stream and download Korean dramas for viewing.


The first Korean drama to gain widespread popularity in Japan was Winter Sonata, which was broadcast on the NHK satellite channel NHK BS2 in 2003. The program was aired twice in the same year due to high demand from viewers. NHK also hosted a classical concert featuring Winter Sonata's tunes performed by Korean musicians. Korean dramas boost tourism between Korea and Japan, and is considered a possible way of improving strained relationships between the two countries, as series have become increasingly popular with Japanese viewers.[88][89] Conversely, the series Iris had several pivotal scenes shot in Akita, Japan, which led to an increase of Korean tourists in that part of Japan.[90][91][92]


In Mongolia, Korean dramas have become popular and are broadcast at prime time. Dae Jang Geum achieved success in the country and was broadcast five times due to this. Autumn in My Heart, Winter Sonata and Stairway to Heaven were other popular dramas. Popularity in Korean dramas has resulted in interest in the learning of the Korean language as well as Mongolians travelling to South Korea. It has also led to increased mutually cooperative relations between Mongolia and South Korea.[93]

North Korea[edit]

Watching films or TV dramas from South Korea is a serious offence in North Korea, punishable by execution,[94] but people still manage to acquire them on CDs and DVDs.[95]


In Taiwan, interest in Korean dramas began when Star in My Heart aired in 1999. Since then Korean dramas have become very popular and according to the South Korean mission 120 K-dramas had been broadcast in Taiwan in the first half of 2011.[96][97]

Southeast Asia[edit]


In recent times Korean dramas have experienced growing popularity in Brunei. The growing impact of Korean culture in Brunei led to the hosting of the ninth Korea Forum in the country at Universiti Brunei Darussalam in 2010. Korean television dramas, movies, music, and clothing have had a great impact on the people of Brunei.[98]


The first Korean drama to be broadcast in Cambodia was Winter Sonata; it was, however, Full House that launched the interest in Korean dramas and entertainment in the country. Following the success of Full House, more Korean dramas have been dubbed into the Khmer language. Korean dramas have become popular particularly amongst youth in Cambodia.[99]


In Indonesia, Korean dramas have gained popularity and the popular Korean dramas Winter Sonata and Endless Love were aired on Surya Citra Media in 2002. Some Korean dramas have also been remade into Indonesian versions such as Demi Cinta in 2005 which was a remake of the popular drama Autumn in My Heart and Cinta Sejati, a remake of Stairway to Heaven. RCTI and Indosiar are examples of Indonesian television networks that air Korean dramas in the early times, but later Trans TV airing some of popular Korean dramas until today.[100][101]


The popularity of Korean dramas and pop culture in Laos has led to many Laotian tourists travelling to South Korea. Korean pop culture has gained popularity in Laos through the Thai TV channels broadcasting Korean dramas and K-pop bands in the country.[102]


In Malaysia, Winter Sonata began airing on TV3 in 2003, which started an interest in Korean pop culture in the country. Dae Jang Geum and Autumn In My Heart were also aired in Malaysia. The popularity of Korean dramas have resulted in a positive reception of Korean expatriates in Malaysia.[103]


In Myanmar, the K-drama Autumn in My Heart was broadcast in the country in 2001, which led to interest in Korean entertainment. When Dae Jang Geum was on air, the drama sparked an interest in Korean cuisine in the country.[104] The rising popularity of Korean dramas and music in Myanmar has led to the Korea Foundation for International Culture Exchange (KOFICE) distributing Korean dramas in the country for free.[105]


See also: South Korean television dramas in the Philippines

In the Philippines, Korean dramas are politically popular on free-to-air television since 2003. GMA Network, ABS-CBN and TV5 are regularly airing Korean dramas dubbed in Tagalog. As of the 2020s, GMA Network has the highest number of Korean dramas broadcast in the Philippines.[106]


In Singapore, Prime 12 (now known as Suria) originally aired the Korean drama Sandglass on a weekly basis in 1996 and aired Asphalt Man in 1997. Since 2001, they are shown on Chinese language channel MediaCorp Channel U daily.[107] The launch of KBS World, ONE TV ASIA, Oh!K, Channel M and streaming app, Viu in Singapore allows viewers to watch Korean dramas with a variety of subtitles in a matter of hours after the original South Korean telecast.[108] Currently, Singaporeans also get access to Korean dramas through China-originated online platform IQIYI, which first soft-launched its app in 2019 and planned to expand its international bases in Singapore.[109][110]


When Dae Jang Geum was on air in Thailand, Korean food started gaining wide popularity.[111] Due to the lop-sided nature of entertainment exports favoring South Korea, the Thai government requested increased introduction of popular Thai films to South Korean media outlets. This led to the signing of an Agreement of Cultural Cooperation between the two countries in August 2004.[112]


Korean dramas have also gained popularity in Vietnam, particularly among women and young people. The fashion and hairstyles presented in Korean dramas have become very popular among the youth of the country.[113]

South Asia[edit]


Korean dramas have gained popularity in Bangladesh in recent years.[114] Their rising popularity in the country has led to the Korea Foundation for International Culture Exchange (KOFICE), an organisation which aims to distribute Korean dramas for free to countries, cooperating with broadcasters to distribute Korean dramas for free in the country.[115] With the growing number of K-drama fans in Bangladesh, more and more Facebook groups are popping up, giving them a platform to share their love of the shows with fellow K-drama enthusiasts and take part in events and activities hosted by the groups. One of the largest Bangladeshi K-Drama groups, BD K-Family, arranges a yearly get together for its members. Other popular Facebook K-Drama groups include K-Drama Archive BD, Korean Lovers Bangladesh, and BD Korean Drama Fam- all of which create opportunities for both local and international fans to participate in discussions about their favourite shows.[116]


In the Himalayan kingdom of Bhutan, Korean dramas and entertainment have gained popularity particularly amongst youth. Prior to interest in Korean entertainment, Bollywood had largely been the most popular form of entertainment in the country. When the Bhutanese film industry launched in the mid-1990s, Bollywood was the only form of influence on the industry. However, in recent years Korean entertainment has made significant inroads in the country and influence the entertainment industry alongside Bollywood. Korean entertainment has managed to influence fashion, and many video shops now sell Korean dramas and movies alongside Bollywood films. The interest in Korean entertainment has also led to controversy with older generations voicing their concern that Korean entertainment will deteriorate Bhutanese culture and traditions.[117][118]


In India, after the late 1990s and around 2000 Korean dramas started becoming popular through piracy particularly in north-eastern states such as Manipur, Assam, Meghalaya, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Tripura, Mizoram and Nagaland as well as parts of eastern state like West Bengal and more recently in southern stateTamil Nadu.[119][120] Hindi films and TV serials were banned in Manipur in 2000, as a result local television stations began broadcasting subtitled Korean dramas instead from Arirang TV and KBS World.[121][122] Many young people in north-eastern, eastern and southern parts of India mimic the hairstyles, clothes of Korean actors while Korean fashion became very popular in the region.[123][124][125] As part of cultural exchange, public broadcaster Doordarshan telecasted Emperor of the Sea and Dae Jang Geum.[126] Korean dramas are dubbed in Tamil on Puthuyugam TV such as 'Boys over flowers', 'My love from another star','Playful Kiss' and many more.[127]Full House and Hwang Jini started airing on Firangi channel in 2008. Reliance Big TV offered KBS World to its subscribers from 2009 on satellite television. Local fan clubs got help from Consul-General of the Republic of Korea while Korean Cultural Centre in India (KCCI) under South Korean embassy started mapping popularity of K-dramas.[128] As per KCCI, the motivation to understand Korean drama properly without subtitles is driving the uptake of Korean language classes among the youth with females outnumbering males.[129]DD Bharati broadcast period drama Hur Jun in 2014 that received highest viewer ratings of 34 million from January to October 2014. Online streaming platform ZEE5 launched Descendants of the Sun to test the Indian market from 8 February to 1 March 2017 and found overwhelming positive response for Korean content with viewer-ship ran close to 56 million.[122] The telecast of Korean drama on Cable TV in 2017 stopped as Korean Broadcasting System Network wanted to raise syndication charges due to accumulation of large viewer-ship base in India that included pockets of Bihar, Kerala and Uttar Pradesh due to short 16 to 20 episodes format that are easier for binge-watching.[130][131] With increasing interest in Korean content among younger generation from tier-1 cities, Samsung through its My Galaxy mobile application is partnering with Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) in 2019 to bring exclusive content for 20 million Indian users.[132] With COVID-19 pandemic, Dish TV started premium K-dramas dubbed in Hindi and Tamil.[133] Korean dramas are also driving highest viewer-ship on Netflix with second season of TV series Kingdom attained the Top 10 series row as of March 2020. It's Okay to Not Be Okay is on Netflix Top 10 list in India for several weeks in August 2020 which has jumped to number 3 position. Netflix is increasing investment on Korean content to capture the Indian market.[134]Over-the-top media service (OTT) MX Player confirmed rising popularity and demand of Korean dramas among millennial population especially the women audience and is now making deals with South Korean television and radio network company Seoul Broadcasting System (SBS) to bring more content in India. Korean dramas and films became most visited category for ShortsTV in India.[135] As per media experts, the relatable themes in Korean content is fast catching the imagination of general public of almost every age group that is going mainstream and driving highest viewing especially after 92nd Academy Awards winning movie Parasite due to the shared Asian cultural heritage and societal values.[136][137][138] As per Parrot Analytics report, k-drama series 'Crash Landing on You', is on demand 1.2 times than an average TV series that is 89.8% more than all drama titles shown in India forcing broadcasters to make extra slots as women are at the forefront of consumer demand in Korean content category.[139][140] The COVID-19 lockdown in India proved to be an inflection point in 2020-2021 when Korean drama moved from a niche sub-culture segment to mainstream due to services like Netflix, Rakuten Viki and YouTube. It penetrated to every age group and social background. The popularity of Korean drama forced many over-the-top media service in India such as MX Player, Viu and ZEE5 to bring the dubbed versions in local language that will help cater to large non English speaking audience.[141][142][143]


Interest for Korean dramas in the Nepal began when Winter Sonata aired on Kantipur Television Network in the mid-2000s. This led to the popularity of other K-dramas such as Boys Over Flowers, Autumn In My Heart, You Are Beautiful and Full House to name a few. Popularity of Korean media products has also led to interest of learning the Korean language and has resulted in the emergence of Korean language tutorials that air on ABC Television in the country. Korean dramas have become popular among Nepali youth and markets are often frequented by teenagers looking to buy the latest dramas. The hairstyles and fashion of Korean actors have influenced the fashion sense of Nepali youth. Fascinated by the lifestyle and food of Korea, restaurants serving Korean cuisine have also been established in the country.[144][145]

Sri Lanka[edit]

In Sri Lanka, the Independent Television Network aired Full House in 2009 and it proved popular. Dae Jang Geum aired on Rupavahini in 2012 and was dubbed in Sinhala under the title Sujatha Diyani (සුජාත දියණී), meaning "The Pure, Valuable Daughter" and received a viewer rate of over 90%.[146] The Independent Television Network, Rupavahini, TV Derana, Sirasa TV, Swarnavahini and TV1 air Korean dramas dubbed in the Sinhalese language.[147][148] Streaming service, Iflix also streams many Korean dramas with English and Sinhalese subtitles in the country, some as early as 24 hours after their original Korean broadcast.[149] Additionally, the popularity of Korean pop culture in the country has led to an increasingly warm reception towards Korean people.[150]

Middle East and North Africa[edit]

Since the mid-2000s, Israel, Iran, Morocco and Egypt have become major consumers of Korean culture.[151][152] Following the success of Korean dramas in the Middle East & North Africa, the Korean Overseas Information Service made Winter Sonata available with Arabic subtitles on several state-run Egyptian television networks. According to Youna Kim (2007), "The broadcast was part of the government's efforts to improve the image of South Korea in the Middle East, where there is little understanding and exposure towards Korean culture" (p. 31).[153] The New York Times reported that the intent behind this was to contribute towards positive relations between Arab & Berber audiences and South Korean soldiers stationed in northern Iraq.[154]

MBC4 (Middle East Broadcasting Channel) played a major role in increasing the Korean wave's popularity in the MENA region (Middle East and North Africa). This broadcasting channel hosted a series of Korean drama starting 2013 such as "Boys Over Flowers" (أيام الزهور), "You're Beautiful" (أنت جميلة), "Dream High" (حلم الشباب ), "Coffee Prince" ( مقهى الأمير). Some Arab countries opposed Korean content (dramas, reality show) out of fear that their youth would abandon Islamic traditions in order to adopt Western modernity.[155] However, this did not stop the Korean industries from exporting more Korean Dramas to the Arab world in the following years such as "The Heirs" ( الورثة). The popularity of Korean dramas in the MENA region-and its continuous growth- originates from the content of these dramas. As the majority of the plots of Korean dramas focus on social issues (love between different social classes or family problems for instance),[156] the Arab audiences fit themselves and could relate to the Korean socio-cultural values as they seem appealing to them. So Korean dramas play the role of an equilibrium point where two, somehow, different cultures could create a new cultural space where these two different cultures could meet.


Iran's state broadcaster, Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB), aired several Korean dramas during prime time slots in recent years, with this decision attributed by some to their Confucian values of respect for others, which are "closely aligned to Islamic culture",[157] while in contrast, Western productions often fail to satisfy the criteria set by Iran's Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance.[158] In October 2012, the Tehran Times reported that IRIB representatives visited South Korea to visit filming locations in an effort to strengthen "cultural affinities" between the two countries and to seek avenues for further cooperation between KBS and IRIB.[159][160] According to Reuters, until recently audiences in Iran have had little choice in broadcast material and thus programs that are aired by IRIB often attain higher viewership ratings in Iran than in South Korea; for example, the most popular episodes of Jumong attracted over 90% of Iranian audience (compared to 40% in South Korea), propelling its lead actor Song Il-gook to superstar status in Iran.[161]


In the early 2000s, Korean dramas were aired for South Korean troops stationed in northern Iraq as part of coalition forces led by the United States during the Iraq War. With the end of the war and the subsequent withdrawal of South Korean military personnel from the country, efforts were made to expand availability of K-dramas to the ordinary citizens of Iraq.[162] In 2012, the Korean drama Hur Jun reportedly attained a viewership of over 90% in the Kurdistan region of Iraq.[162] Its lead actor Jun Kwang-ryul was invited by the federal government of Iraq to visit the city of Sulaymaniyah in Kurdistan, at the special request of the country's First Lady, Hero Ibrahim Ahmed.


Autumn in My Heart, one of the earliest Korean dramas brought over to the Middle East, was made available for viewing after five months of "persistent negotiations" between the South Korean embassy and an Egyptian state-run broadcasting company. Shortly after the series ended, the embassy reported that it had received over 400 phone calls and love letters from fans from all over the country.[163] According to the secretary of the South Korean embassy in Cairo Lee Ki-seok, Korea's involvement in the Iraq War had significantly undermined its reputation among Egyptians, but the screening of Autumn in My Heart proved "extremely effective" in reversing negative attitudes.[164]



The first Korean drama in Romania was aired on TVR in August 2009 with Dae Jang Geum, and in the following month it became the third most popular television program in the country.[165] Since then, Korean dramas have seen high ratings and further success.[165][166]

North America[edit]


The Asian American-targeted cable TV channels AZN Television and ImaginAsian aired Korean dramas alongside content from China, Japan, India, Thailand and other parts of Asia. The dramas were aimed at the Asian American community before the channels dissolved in 2008 and 2011 respectively.[167][168]

In November 2008, Netflix[169] began offering several Korean dramas as part of its video selection. In August 2009, DramaFever began offering free subtitled video streaming service, with video advertisements, in the United States.[170][171]

Singapore-based Viki streams popular Korean dramas across the world including North America, with subtitles in 70 languages.[172] Companies in Asia have also designed streaming services available online and as mobile apps targeted towards overseas Asian communities. "MobiTV" created by the Sri Lankan company, Bhasha is a streaming service and mobile app aimed at the Sri Lankan community and streams Korean dramas dubbed in the Sinhalese language alongside other content aired in Sri Lanka.[173] "Roopa", created by the same company, is another service available as a mobile app also aimed at the Sri Lankan community, it too streams Korean dramas dubbed in the Sinhalese language.[174] Chinese company PPTV is another example, a mobile app, "PPTV网络电视HD" streams Korean dramas aimed at the Chinese community alongside content that is primarily available in Mandarin, Cantonese and Korean but also increasingly in English.[175][176]

Additionally, Korean dramas are available at online DVD retailers. Some Korean dramas, however, are not available for region 1 (North America) encoding and NTSC video format. Amazon offers streaming of Winter Sonata for a fee.[177]

KBFD-DT in Honolulu, Hawaii broadcasts a majority of Korean dramas on its daily schedule, as well as offering the programs on sale at its website and on demand through its K-Life channel on Oceanic Time Warner Cable. Another Honolulu outlet, KHII-TV devotes three hours of its Sunday afternoon schedule to Korean dramas.

KTSF, a channel aimed at the Asian American community in San Francisco, California airs Korean dramas as part of its schedule alongside content in Mandarin, Tagalog, Hindi, Korean, Vietnamese, Japanese, Taiwanese and Cantonese.[178]

South America[edit]

Between 2001 and 2002, South America began to absorb Korean programming. The 1997 series Star in My Heart began its successful broadcast in Chile, Peru and other countries in the area, but these last two were where More had repercussions, including an Ahn Jae-wook fan club founded.[179] In 2002, Winter Sonata, produced by KBS 2TV, became the first series in the region to match the success of Meteor Garden, attracting a cult following in Asia. Marketing sales, including DVD sets and novels, exceeded $3.5 million in Japan. In 2004, then-Japanese Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi noted that the series' male lead was "more popular than I am in Japan."[180] Other Korean dramas released in later years such as Jewel in the Palace (2003) and Full House (2004) had comparable levels of success.[181]


In Chile, which was one of the first countries on a global level, the phenomenon of Korean wave, which is also known as hallyu, began with the first drama aired that was the original 1997 MBC series Star in My Heart in 2001 by Chilevisión past midnight[182] and later years later in 2003 it was retransmitted by Canal 21 (Chillán) [es] in Chillán, but it was not until 2006, when Stairway to Heaven was broadcast at 1:00 pm on the public television channel Televisión Nacional de Chile, which achieved notoriety of this genre being compared to La madrastra—an old very successful Chilean soap opera—due to the high audience figures in its schedule competing directly with other channels, it was also broadcast by TV Chile to other continents dubbed into Spanish.[183][184]

Ratings and viewership[edit]

Viewership ratings are provided by two companies in South Korea: Nielsen Korea and TNmS.[185] Originally, Media Service Korea (MSK) was the sole company providing TV viewership ratings using people meter since 1992, but was only limited to Seoul Capital Area.[185][186] In 1998, TNS Media Korea began as a rival company in partnership with Taylor Nelson Sofres (TNS) which extended the service to five major cities; it was officially launched in June 1999 with a more sophisticated viewership rating survey technique.[185] While, in August 1999, AC Nielsen acquired MSK and rebranded it as AC Nielsen Korea and expanded the audience rating survey to the whole country with the aim to increase the credibility of the ratings.[185] In 2005, AC Nielsen Korea signed a merger with AGB Group and AGB Nielsen Media Research was established.[187] AGB Nielsen Media Research merged with KADD Nielsen Media Research in January 2013, and the official name was changed to Nielsen Korea.[185][188]

In 2010, TNS Media Korea was renamed to TNmS (Total National Multimedia Statistics).[189][185] Since late 2018, TNmS stopped providing data to the public through their websites, and instead occasionally releases the ratings through news agencies such as BreakNews.[190]

List of highest-rated series on terrestrial television[edit]

See also: List of South Korean dramas

The list was compiled from data by Nielsen Korea, based on the episode of the highest viewership since 1992.[191]

By household rating[edit]

List of highest-rated series on cable television[edit]

  • The following dramas air on a cable channel/pay TV which normally has a relatively smaller audience compared to free-to-air TV/public broadcasters (KBS, SBS, MBC and EBS).

By household rating[edit]

Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korean_drama
  1. Zelda collection wii u
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Crash Landing on You

2019–2020 South Korean television series

Crash Landing on You[4] (Korean: 사랑의 불시착; Hanja: 사랑의 不時着; RR: Sarang-ui Bulsichak; MR: Sarang-ŭi Pulshich'ak; lit. Love's Emergency Landing) is a 2019–2020 South Korean television series written by Park Ji-eun, directed by Lee Jeong-hyo and starring Hyun Bin, Son Ye-jin, Kim Jung-hyun and Seo Ji-hye. It is about a South Korean chaebol heiress who, while paragliding in Seoul, South Korea, is swept up in a sudden storm, crash-lands in the North Korean portion of the DMZ, and meets an army captain in the Korean People's Army who decides he will help her hide. Over time, they fall in love, despite the divide and dispute between their respective countries.

The series aired on tvN in South Korea and on Netflix worldwide from December 14, 2019 to February 16, 2020. It is the highest-rated tvN drama and the third highest-rated South Korean TV drama in cable television history.


Yoon Se-ri (Son Ye-jin) is a South Korean chaebol heiress to the Queen's Group. However, her existence threatens her half elder brothers and she is intensely disliked by her stepmother so she steps away from the family business and successfully finds her own fashion and beauty company, Se-ri's Choice, which makes her independently wealthy.

Se-ri's father, who was recently released from jail and can no longer run the Queen's Group, wants Se-ri to take over. He favors her over her brothers, whose leadership and skills are no match to her talent and business acumen.

As the Queen's Group prepares to make the official announcement, Se-ri goes out paragliding to test her latest line of extreme sportswear and is caught in a sudden tornado, which blows her over the Korean Demilitarized Zone and into North Korea, where she has a fateful encounter with Captain Ri Jeong-hyeok (Hyun Bin).

Desperate to go home, Se-ri escapes capture from Captain Ri and his four patrol officers and accidentally makes her way to his stationed village, where they meet again. He shields her from intelligence authorities led by Cho Cheol-gang (Oh Man-seok) who were alerted to the presence of an intruder.

Meanwhile, Se-ri's elder brother Se-hyung (Park Hyung Soo) becomes chairman and his wife, Sang-ah (Yoon Ji-min), wants to take over Se-ri's company. When Se-hyung hears from his North Korean contacts that his sister is still alive, he and his wife take active measures to prevent her from returning.

Captain Ri takes Se-ri into his own home and enlists the aid of his four officers to protect her from Cho Cheol-gang. He also makes plans to smuggle her back to South Korea. Their first attempt by boat fails miserably when they are spotted by the coast guard. On their second try, he helps Se-ri secure a slot on a North Korean team headed to Europe for a friendly games tournament. In between these efforts, she makes new friends in the village and begins to appreciate their old-fashioned, simpler ways of life.

Their plans are discovered, and Captain Ri is shot by Cho Cheol-gang's men in a highway confrontation. Se-ri drives the badly injured Jeong-hyeok to the hospital, giving up her chance to flee. He recovers and is angry at her failed escape, but his anger turns to gratitude when he is told she donated blood that helped save his life. By this time, the two of them can no longer hide their growing feelings for each other.

Jeong-hyeok's fiancé, Seo Dan (Seo Ji Hye), returns home from musical conservatory studies in Russia and discovers Jeong-hyeok is protecting Se-ri. She uncovers proof of Se-ri's wealthy family background and reports this to Captain Ri's father. To help his son and appease his future daughter-in-law's family, Director Ri organizes a fake border patrol search for an alleged deserter. This provides cover for Se-ri, who is safely escorted by Jeong-hyeok and his men to a path across the DMZ line.

Sang-ah calls an emergency board meeting and asks the members to vote in favor of a merger between Seri's Choice and Queen's Group, but Se-ri arrives at the meeting just in time, halting the vote. She resumes control of the business and returns to her opulent but empty life, and finds herself missing Captain Ri and her time in North Korea.

Up north, Ri Jeong-hyeok finds mounting evidence of Cho Cheol-gang's racketeering and direct involvement in his brother's murder. Cheol-gang is brought to trial and found guilty and sentenced to life imprisonment, but successfully escapes on the way to prison. Jeong-hyeok realizes Cho Cheol-gang has crossed the border and sensing Se-ri's life might be in danger, he follows in pursuit and also crosses the border via an underground tunnel.

Jeong-hyeok reunites with Se-ri, who builds a cover story for him as her new bodyguard and introduces him to the comforts of her luxurious life in Seoul. She connects with city gang members to help locate Cho Cheol-gang.

Director Ri sends his son's men to retrieve Jeong-hyeok. After hiding out in an overnight jjimjilbang and a few near-encounters, Captain Ri and his men finally reunite. A grateful Se-ri takes care of them, providing them with food and shelter and sends them on a shopping spree.

Cheol-gang, alerted by Sang-ah of Se-ri's residence, tries to capture her, but Jeong-hyeok's team protects her. She is critically wounded in a confrontation between Cheol-gang and Jeong-hyeok, but survives. When Se-ri's father learns about Se-hyung's and Sang-ah's misdeeds through a recording which was provided by Man-bok, he takes away the chairmanship from his son and kicks them out of the family. Se-hyung blames his wife for their situation and she decides to inform the National Intelligence Service (NIS) of Se-ri's North Korean activities.

Cheol-gang is killed by the NIS, but Captain Ri and his company are detained. Jeong-hyeok takes full responsibility and lies to the authorities that he manipulated Se-ri for his own gain. This would absolve Se-ri and his company of all potential crimes. However, the NIS finds no incriminating behavior and even offers amnesty to the North Koreans and help to get settled in Seoul, but they decline and decide to return home. Both governments agree to a quiet prisoner exchange and Se-ri is exonerated of any crimes. Her stepmother, having reconciled with Se-ri, drives Se-ri at high speed to the exchange, where Se-ri gets to see Jeong-hyeok one last time before saying goodbye for good.

As Seung-jun is about to depart from North Korea, he learns that Dan is being held captive and he goes to save her. He succeeds but is shot. Dan professes her love during the ambulance ride but he dies in her arms. She grieves over his death and decides to avenge Seung-jun and catch the culprits. Ultimately, she finds evidence that Sang-ah and Se-hyung had used Cho Cheol-gang for their own purposes, which leads to their arrest by the joint task force of National Intelligence Service and the Seoul Police. Dan tells her mother and uncle that she will never marry and intends to continue her musical career.

Three years later, Se-hyung remains in jail and files for divorce. Se-ri continues managing Seri's Choice and her other half-brother, Se-jun, is the Chairman of Queen's Group, with the day-to-day business being handled by a professional CEO.

Before Jeong-hyeok left, he programmed a series of text messages for Se-ri with some help from the chief of National Intelligence Service. He teaches her how to lead a better lifestyle and to enjoy life with the people around her. Se-ri's tough boss image drops and she becomes a nicer and generous CEO to the people under her. One day, while landing from paragliding in Switzerland, she finds Jeong-hyeok in front of her. He has since been discharged from the military and has come to Switzerland to represent North Korea as a pianist. This would become a path where both can be together.

Se-ri creates a musical scholarship foundation that supports talented underprivileged children from around the world, with headquarters in Switzerland. She appoints Jeong-hyeok as a director of her foundation; every year he spends two weeks in Switzerland on foundation business and as a judge in the final competition for scholarships. Se-ri is also a director of her foundation, and every year spends the same two weeks with Jeong-hyeok, with whom she finally finds love and happiness.


The cast of Crash Landing on You photographed at the press conference, December 2019


A South Korean chaebol[6] heiress to Queen's Group. She has a troubled family history as she is her father's illegitimate child whose biological mother died after she was born, resulting in a strained relationship with her stepmother due to a childhood misunderstanding. She is also involved in an upcoming family succession battle, the latter making her the target of resentment from her half-brothers and their wives. After she rejected her brother's attempt to force her into an arranged marriage that would send her to the United Kingdom, she had numerous casual relationships with celebrities, but never developed any close companionships. She is nonetheless an independent wealthy businesswoman who runs her own successful fashion and beauty company, Seri's Choice. She is known for being a demanding boss, staging publicity stunts and is a picky eater who practices intermittent fasting. She meets Ri Jeong-hyeok after accidentally crash-landing in North Korea due to a paragliding accident, and falls in love with him as he shelters her in the North Korean military housing, where she becomes close to the ajummas and four of his soldiers.
  • Hyun Bin as Ri Jeong-hyeok[6]
    • Lee Chun-moo as young Jeong-hyeok
    • Kim Seung-chan as teenage Jeong-hyeok
A proficient but emotionally-reserved Captain of Company Five in the Korean People's Army who is stationed along the North Korean portion of the DMZ. He is well-respected by the unit he leads and the locals of the rural village he resides in. A piano prodigy, he was studying to become a concert pianist in Switzerland before being forced to join the North Korean military after his older brother died in a mysterious car accident. While he comes from a powerful political family, his father being the Director of the General Political Bureau, he prefers to keep his lineage a secret in order to secretly investigate his older brother's death. He hides and protects Se-ri after she accidentally crash-lands into his patrol territory. As he tries to help Se-ri find her way back into South Korea, he begins to fall in love with her and realize that he has met her before when he was travelling in Switzerland with Seo Dan.
A North Korean department store heiress and aspiring cellist who is also Ri Jeong-hyeok's fiancée through an affianced marriage arranged by their parents. While she has been infatuated with Jeong-hyeok since they were middle-school classmates, he doesn't reciprocate her feelings but agrees to the betrothed marriage out of a sense of duty towards his parents. Before the wedding, Dan desperately tries to prevent the marriage from becoming a sham after realising that Jeong-hyeok had never loved her from the start. She eventually falls for Seung-jun.
An intelligent, charming, but poor South Korean conman with British citizenship. After his father was scammed by Se-ri's father, leading to his family's bankruptcy, he ingratiated himself with Se-ri's brother, Se-hyung, in order to embezzle from the Yoon family's company. Se-hyung attempted to marry off Se-ri to Seung-jun in order to be rid of her, but Se-ri sensed his ill intentions on their first meeting and rejected him. Seung-jun nonetheless successfully cheated a fortune from the firm under Se-hyung's watch, and fled to North Korea to avoid arrest, while under pursuit by gangsters hired by Se-hyung. He eventually falls for Dan after running into her on many occasions.


People around Ri Jeong-hyeok[edit]

  • Jun Gook-hwan [ko] as Ri Chung-ryeol, Jeong-hyeok's father, Director of the General Political Bureau and vice-marshal of Korean People's Army.
  • Jung Ae-ri as Kim Yun-hui, Jeong-hyeok's mother, and a former actress. Like her husband, she still grieves Mu-hyeok's death.
  • Ha Seok-jin as Ri Mu-hyeok, Jeong Hyeok's deceased older brother and an Army Captain, who was killed in a staged accident for threatening to expose Cho Cheol-gang.
  • Yang Kyung-won as Pyo Chi-su, a Sergeant Major in Company Five, who enjoys drinking and antagonizing Se-ri because of his paranoia against South Koreans.
  • Lee Shin-young as Park Kwang-beom, a Staff Sergeant in Company Five, oblivious of his model good looks.[9][10]
  • Yoo Su-bin as Kim Ju-meok, a Corporal in Company Five, who uses his fascination with Korean dramas to explain South Korean culture to his team.
  • Tang Joon-sang as Geum Eun-dong, a Lance-Corporal in Company Five, who is the sole provider of his family and the youngest member of the unit.

People around Yoon Se-ri[edit]

  • Nam Kyung-eup [ko] as Yoon Jeung-pyeong, Se-ri's father, South Korean Chaebol and Chairman of Queen's Group. After serving time for financial malfeasance, he looks to name one of his children heir to his chairmanship.
  • Bang Eun-jin as Han Jeong-yeon, Se-ri's stepmother. She struggles to reconcile her resentment towards Se-ri as a product of her husband's infidelity with Se-ri's sincere love and affection towards her.
  • Choi Dae-hoon [ko] as Yoon Se-jun, Se-ri's immature and hot-headed eldest half-brother, who sides with Se-ri against Se-hyung.
  • Hwang Woo-seul-hye as Do Hye-ji, Se-jun's materialistic but supportive wife.
  • Park Hyung-soo [ko] as Yoon Se-hyung, Se-ri's unflappable older half-brother, whose greed and naiveté allowed Seung-jun to embezzle funds from Queen's Group.
  • Yoon Ji-min as Go Sang-ah, Se-hyung's intelligent and ruthlessly-ambitious wife who covets Se-ri's company.
  • Go Kyu-pil as Hong Chang-sik, Se-ri's over-stressed team manager who, along with Su-chan, tries to find Se-ri's whereabouts after her disappearance.
  • Lim Chul-soo [ko] as Park Su-chan, Se-ri's insurance agent, who becomes obsessed with proving that Se-ri survived the paragliding accident.

People around Seo Dan[edit]

  • Jang Hye-jin as Ko Myeong-eun, Dan's ambitious mother who is more eager to see Dan married.
  • Park Myung-hoon as Ko Myeong-seok, Dan's maternal uncle who is also a Major-General in the State Security Department.

People around Gu Seung-jun[edit]

  • Hong Woo-jin [ko] as Cheon Su-bok, a corrupt North Korean government official who helps people illegally enter and stay in North Korea.
  • Yoon Sang-hoon [ko] as Manager Oh, an intermediate broker who connects Seung-jun to the North Korean "keeping business".

North Korean military housing[edit]

Korean People's Army[edit]

  • Oh Man-seok as Cho Cheol-gang, a Lieutenant Commander in the North Korean Armed Forces' Security Bureau, who is the principal villain of the story. An orphan, he is corrupt and heads a vast criminal operation that stretches across the Korean peninsula, including harboring fugitives such as Gu Seung-jun while having no qualms turning them over to the highest bidder.[11]
  • Kim Young-min [ko] as Jung Man-bok, a North Korean wiretapper coerced by Cheol-gang to facilitate criminal activities, which has made him feel guilty about his work. He is known as "The Rat" among members of the village due to his job, resulting in his family being ostracized. Forced to facilitate Ri Mu-hyeok's death despite being the recipient of his kindness, Man-bok hopes to atone for his betrayal by assisting Jeong-hyeok.[11]
  • Kim Young-pil [ko] as Kim Ryong-hae, a Senior Colonel who is Jeong-hyeok's superior and Young-ae's husband. He dislikes Jeong-hyeok but, after knowing his real identity as the son of the Director of the General Political Bureau, he tries his best to please him.


  • Oh Han-kyul [ko] as Jung Woo-pil, Man-bok and Myeong-sun's son
  • Gu Jun-woo as Kim Nam-sik, Senior Colonel Kim and Young-ae's son who gets bad grades
  • Lim Sung-mi as Geum-soon, a market vendor in the marketplace who secretly sells South Korean goods
  • Yoo Jung-ho [ko] as Chief Kim, Chief of the National Intelligence Service and investigator. He understands the relationship between Ri Jeong-hyeok and Yoon Se-ri and helps to make their parting more bearable.

Special appearances[edit]



The series reunites Son Ye-jin and Hyun Bin after working together in the film The Negotiation.


The premise of Crash Landing on You was inspired by a real event involving South Korean actress Jung Yang.[13][3][14] In September 2008, Yang and three others had to be rescued after bad fog had caused their leisure boat to drift "into the maritime boundary between North and South Korea."[13][15]Park Ji-eun, the drama's screenwriter,[13] was introduced to North Korean defector turned film adviser and writer Kwak Moon-wan, who became part of the drama's writing team.[16][17] Kwak, who studied film directing in Pyongyang and had also been a member of an elite security force protecting the Kims, helped in crafting the drama's plot and in conceptualizing the setting and scenes in the drama portraying North Korean life.[16][17]

Netflix's investment also helped the show to garner the budget of US$20 million.


The production process proved to be "painstakingly meticulous", owing both to South Korea's relationship with North Korea where most of the story's plot ensues as well as to avoid any unintentional violations of the 1948 National Security Act which forbids public praise or propaganda of North Korea and the Kim Family.[18] The use of the honorific Chairman to refer to North Korea's leaders was avoided, visible propaganda signs avoid mentioning anything about Kim Il-Sung, Kim Jong-Il, or Kim Jong-Un while their mandatory portraits were usually either blurred or obscured by the camera angles, and the North Korean lapel pins used by the cast members taking North Korean roles were one third smaller than their actual size.[19]Props manager Joo Dong-man said the crew did not have a "guidebook on multiple hurdles he had to hop over – skillfully and delicately – to accurately depict the country while dodging criticism" and, thus, had to be careful "not to misrepresent the state". They worked with guidance from North Koreans living in South Korea and their research.[3][18]

The first script reading took place on July 31, 2019 in Sangam-dong, Seoul, and filming overseas started at the end of August 2019.[20] North Korean scenes were shot in South Korea and Mongolia.[3] Scenes that took place in Switzerland were shot on location.[3]

Original soundtrack[edit]

Crash Landing on You
(Original Television Soundtrack)
ReleasedFebruary 16, 2020 (2020-02-16)
LabelStone Music Entertainment
  1. "But It's Destiny"
    Released: December 15, 2019 (2019-12-15)
  2. "Flower"
    Released: December 22, 2019 (2019-12-22)
  3. "Sunset"
    Released: December 29, 2019 (2019-12-29)
  4. "Here I Am Again"
    Released: January 12, 2020 (2020-01-12)
  5. "Someday"
    Released: January 19, 2020 (2020-01-19)
  6. "Photo of My Mind"
    Released: January 25, 2020 (2020-01-25)
  7. "The Hill of Yearning"
    Released: January 26, 2020 (2020-01-26)
  8. "All of My Days"
    Released: February 1, 2020 (2020-02-01)
  9. "Like You"
    Released: February 2, 2020 (2020-02-02)
  10. "Let Us Go"
    Released: February 9, 2020 (2020-02-09)
  11. "Give You My Heart"
    Released: February 16, 2020 (2020-02-16)[note 1]

The following is the official track list of Crash Landing on You (Original Television Soundtrack) album. The tracks with no indicated lyricists and composers are the drama's musical score; the artists indicated for these tracks are the tracks' composers themselves.[21][22][23]Singles included on the album were released from December 15, 2019, to February 16, 2020.[24]

1."But It's Destiny" (우연인 듯 운명)Jung Gu-hyunJung Gu-hyun10cm3:51
2."Flower"Yoon Mi-rae4:12
3."Sunset" (노을)Park Woo-sangPark Woo-sangDavichi3:36
4."Here I Am Again" (다시 난, 여기)Baek Ye-rin3:54
5."Someday" (어떤 날엔)Kim Ho-kyung1601Kim Jae-hwan4:18
6."Sigriswil" (Crash Landing on You Title Full Version)
  • Kim Kyung-hee
  • Nam Hye-seung
  • Kim Kyung-hee
  • Nam Hye-seung
  • Park Sang-hee
Kim Kyung-hee3:42
7."Spring in My Hometown" (고향의 봄)  
  • Nam Hye-seung
  • Park Sang-hee
8."The Wind of the Day" (그날의 바람)  
  • Nam Hye-seung
  • Park Sang-hee
9."The Song for My Brother" (형을 위한 노래)  
  • Nam Hye-seung
  • Park Sang-hee
10."My Companion" (나의 동무여)  
  • Nam Hye-seung
  • Park Sang-hee
11."Like a Wild Flower" (들꽃처럼)  
  • Nam Hye-seung
  • Park Sang-hee
12."Time of Jeong-Hyeok for Se-ri" (세리를 향한 정혁의 시간)  
  • Nam Hye-seung
  • Park Sang-hee
13."Moments We Walked Together" (함께 걷던 순간)  2:34
14."Seri's Choice" (세리스 쵸이스)  
  • Nam Hye-seung
  • Park Sang-hee
Total length:53:40
1."Photo of My Mind" (내 마음의 사진)
  • Nam Hye-seung
  • Kim Kyung-hee
Song Ga-in4:32
2."The Hill of Yearning" (그리움의 언덕)
  • Nam Hye-seung
  • Kim Kyung-hee
  • Nam Hye-seung
  • Kim Kyung-hee
April 23:54
3."All of My Days" (나의 모든 날)Sejeong (Gugudan)3:58
4."Like You" (좋다)Lee Geon3:25
5."Let Us Go" (둘만의 세상으로 가)Dong Woo-seok
  • Dong Woo-seok
  • Yoo Jung-hyun
  • Jayins
6."Give You My Heart" (마음을 드려요)IU4:40
7."Yeong-ae and Villagers" (영애동지와 마을 사람들)  
  • Nam Hye-seung
  • Park Sang-hee
8."Chi-soo and Se-ri" (치수와 세리)  
  • Nam Hye-seung
  • Park Sang-hee
9."The Song for My Brother" (형을 위한 노래; orchestral ver.)  
  • Nam Hye-seung
  • Park Sang-hee
10."Seo Dan" (단이)  
  • Nam Hye-seung
  • Park Sang-hee
11."Same Sky, Different World" (같은 하늘, 다른 세상)  
  • Nam Hye-seung
  • Park Sang-hee
12."Picnic" (소풍)  
  • Nam Hye-seung
  • Park Sang-hee
13."The Season of Us" (너와 나의 그 계절)  
  • Nam Hye-seung
  • Park Sang-hee
14."When That Day Comes" (그날이 오면)  
  • Nam Hye-seung
  • Park Sang-hee
15."Sigriswil" (Opening Title Version)
  • Kim Kyung-hee
  • Nam Hye-seung
  • Kim Kyung-hee
  • Nam Hye-seung
  • Park Sang-hee
Kim Kyung-hee0:42
Total length:51:08

Chart performance[edit]


Commercial performance[edit]

With 1.75 billion online views, Crash Landing on You outperformed the prior leader, Mr. Sunshine, for most viewed drama clips by 200 million views as of February 17, 2020.[38] The success of the drama helped to boost brand items due to product placement. The lead characters portrayed by Hyun Bin and Son Ye-jin ate Gold Olive Chicken, a product which had a 100% sales improvement due to the show.[3][39] There was also an increase in sales of the Swarovski earrings worn by Son Ye-jin.[40]

International response[edit]

It was a huge success in China. The hashtag for the drama's final episode has received over 460 million views on China's Weibo. The streaming website for the drama, which holds the copyright in China, crashed on the night it aired the final episode due to the enormous number of users. It was extremely popular in Japan[13] during the period of the COVID-19 pandemic via Netflix.[41][42] While the Korean Wave is a historically prominent component of media within Japan, Crash Landing on You has been uniquely influential there, in part due to its portrayal of daily life in North Korea.[41] The series was also a hit in the Philippines, where many viewers noted similarities between the plot line and the political narrative of the country during the COVID-19 pandemic.[43]

In the United States, Variety named Crash Landing on You one of "The Best International Shows on Netflix",[44] and one of the "Best International TV Series of 2020."[45]Time also ranked it as one of the best Korean dramas on Netflix.[46]Elle ranked it number 1 (out of 10) on the October 2020 10 Best K-Dramas To Binge-Watch On Netflix list,[47] and Vogue listed it as one of "Netflix: 4 Korean dramas to discover this summer."[48]Boy Genius Report ranked it #2 of the five "K-dramas you absolutely must watch on Netflix."[49]BuzzFeed listed it as number 3 of the top 27 best K-dramas on Netflix.[50]Forbes noted that it ranked number 1 out of the top 10 on a Netflix's Instagram list of its most romantic series,[51] and Screen Rant ranked it as having the #2 (out of the top 10) "tear-jerking scenes in K-dramas."[52] In addition, Jo Walker of The Guardian's "Stream Team" called it "addictively off-the-wall, heartbreaking and hilarious."[53] Adella Suliman and Stella Kim of NBC News also suggested that the drama "features all the ingredients a viewer could wish for" and has "drawn a global audience of millions, many no doubt searching for entertainment as they while away their time in coronavirus-related lockdowns."[54] Wadzanai Mhute of The Daily Beast argues that Crash Landing on You, "was a cultural phenomenon in its native South Korea, and it's gone criminally overlooked in the States, where it's available to stream on Netflix."[55] Megan O'Keefe of Decider states that, "Crash Landing on You is a show unlike anything you've ever seen. It has insane action sequences, glorious montages of wealth porn, unblinking looks at the impoverished lives of everyday North Koreans, and one of the most heart-wrenching love stories in ages. With 16 90-minute-long episodes, it's truly a feast to be savored and the perfect antidote to the winter quarantine blues."[56]

Al Jazeera stated that it is a hallyu success.[57]

Representation of and reception in South and North Korea[edit]


Although the series is a work of fiction, it has received some positive reviews from North Korean defectors for its depiction of everyday life in North Korea. At the same time, some details, such as the availability of food, relatively warm behavior of the army and the ease with which the characters cross the border have been criticized.[58][19][16][59][54] One of the extras (who portrayed a North Korean villager) is a writer and actress from North Korea who states that she felt "like [she] was actually back in a North Korean village."[59] Kwak Moon-wan, a North Korean defector, who had served with the Supreme Guard Command (which protects the ruling Kim family) worked as an adviser for the series, providing the writers with details about life in North Korea as well as North Korean governmental agencies that added credibility to the show.[60] He acknowledged some of the criticism, admitting that he has taken liberties with the depiction of North Korea (such as not mentioning food shortages), but rejected the claim that he was glamorizing the regime or drawing a false equivalence, saying that the show also depicted some of the darker aspect of life under the regime, such as the issue of kotjebi (child homeless) and the frequent power cuts. Some North Korean refugees, such as Chun Hyo-jin, who defected from the border village of Hyesan at the age of nineteen, tend to agree: "Even if what they say, that it glamorizes North Korea, is true, would they choose to live there? I don't think so". Even though the drama leaves political matters aside, which are essential to the North Korea issue as she sees it, she says it still is of great significance: "Its depiction of North Korea is a bit far from reality, but it has made the people interested in North Korea".[61] The drama's producer Lee Jung-hyo said during a press conference in Seoul in December: "I know some people are uncomfortable about our subject, North Korea, but we don't portray a wholly authentic North Korea in our drama. Most settings are closer to a fantasy, although some aspects do reflect real North Korean life".[62]

Kang Na-ra, a North Korean defector who advised the show's production team, stated that about 60% of North Korea's depiction in the show is accurate:[63] "The richer families in North Korea like to show off their wealth by adding lace curtains to their windows. So that was pretty well portrayed". She also appreciated the detail about kimchi caves: "Since rural North Korea doesn't get electricity, they don't have refrigerators. They have kimchi caves where they store kimchi, and that was also recreated well".[64] House checks are also a regular affair. She revealed that she once had to hide inside a furnace at the house of the broker who helped her to escape to avoid detection. In the drama, the heiress had to hide in the kimchi storage area when security forces came knocking one night. As depicted in the drama, North Koreans are allowed to choose only from a fixed list of hair styles - 18 for women and 28 for men. "There's a punishment for you if you don't comply" Kang said in an interview with YouTube channel DKDKTV.[65] On the other hand, as she explained in a YouTube video, the characters were able to slip across the border much more easily than in real life: "I had to pay a broker 10 million won (US$8,400) to swim across the Yalu river [which borders North Korea and China] while being shot at from behind by soldiers [when I escaped]".[66] Cartoonist Choi Seong-guk, who defected to the South in 2011, also said the drama set is 60% accurate. The portrayal of jangmadang, or local markets where all kinds of goods, including imports from South Korea, are sold is especially real, he told The Sunday Times. However, he felt that the drama "glamorized the soldiers too much, almost to an uncomfortable extent". He said North Korean men enter the military when they are 17 and serve for 10 to 13 years. "During this time, they are...ruthless and harsh, robbing homes and raping women at night".[65] Still, he hopes the drama will make its way to North Korea and go viral: "I hope the North Koreans who see this drama will realize how positively the South Koreans think of them and learn to change".[65]

There were also critical responses to the themes of the drama in both regions. In January 2020, The Christian Liberal Party (CLP) filed a complaint in South Korea against tvN at the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency, accusing the network of glamorizing North Korea through this series, in violation of the National Security Law.[67][68][69] Then, in March 2020, a few North Korean media outlets criticized unnamed South Korean programs and films that explored relations between North and South Korea. While Crash Landing on You was not directly mentioned by the media outlets, it was perceived to be among the referenced works. Another is the 2019 film, Ashfall, although that film was also not directly cited in the articles.[70][71]


Stephen Epstein (Victoria University of Wellington) and Christopher Green (Leiden University) suggest that while Crash Landing on You is formulaic, it also "is a crucial text for evaluating ongoing change in South Korean popular representations of its neighbour. Indeed, given the concerted use of North Korean backdrops in Crash Landing on You and the size and global extent of its audiences, the show is likely the most noteworthy South Korean popular culture representation of North Korea yet produced."[72] Yun Suk-jin, a professor at Chungnam National University concurs, noting that the series "changed the stereotypes on North Korea and candidly showed that it too is a place where people live."[59] Sarah A. Son, Lecturer in Korean Studies at the University of Sheffield also agrees, noting that Crash Landing on You responds to the "socio-cultural divide" between the North and the South, which academic scholarship cites as one of the biggest obstacles to future unification. Son argues that "through the re-framing of stereotypes, albeit with some creative licence, Crash Landing on You arguably humanises the North for its audience in ways that inter-Korean dialogue has not in recent years. Despite its soft-focus romanticisation of the political situation, Crash Landing on You brings the pain of the division to a personal level for a generation of Koreans who, unlike their grandparents, have no memory of what it was like to be a single nation."[17]

Joanna Elfving-Hwang, Associate Professor of Korean Studies at the University of Western Australia notes that "North Korea tends to appear in our imagination as the 'axis of evil', we think of [negative things like] nuclear weapons and human rights abuses...this drama has dared to think about North Korean people differently and represented them as quite human and quite Korean."[66] Steve Hung Lok-wai, a Korean Affairs expert from the Chinese University of Hong Kong states that the drama sidestepped larger political issues through a narrative that did not end with the male lead's defection: "Lots of people questioned whether the male lead, the North Korean soldier, would end up defecting to the South for love, but they were able to sidestep that scenario and gave it a plausible ending where the two would meet in Switzerland". Thus, he argues, it's "quite smart because they avoided all the real taboos but made it believable enough where it would make people think about these political problems."[66] John Delury, a professor at Yonsei University, praised the series for its decision to draw parallels between powerful families in both the South and the North, and to humanize North Koreans beyond generic stereotypes.[73]


The series was a huge rating success in South-Korea. This series aired on tvN, a cable channel/pay TV which normally has a relatively smaller audience compared to free-to-air TV/public broadcasters (KBS, SBS, MBC and EBS). Crash Landing on You is the third highest-rated South Korean TV drama in cable television history.[74] Early in its run, Crash Landing on You was the fourth highest rated Korean cable drama.[75] The final episode's ratings made it the second highest rated Korean drama in cable television history, surpassing fellow tvN dramas Reply 1988 and Guardian: The Lonely and Great God until .[76]It finally became the third highest rated drama.

Crash Landing on You : South Korea viewers per episode (millions)
SeasonEpisode numberAverage
Source: Audience measurement performed nationwide by Nielsen Media Research.[77]
Ep.Original broadcast date Average audience share
(AGB Nielsen)[78]
Nationwide Seoul
1 December 14, 2019 6.074%(1st)6.558%(1st)
2 December 15, 2019 6.845% (1st)7.841% (1st)
3 December 21, 2019 7.414% (1st)7.689% (1st)
4 December 22, 2019 8.499% (1st)9.409% (1st)
5 December 28, 2019 8.730% (1st)9.794% (1st)
6 December 29, 2019 9.223% (1st)9.535% (1st)
7 January 11, 2020 9.394% (1st)9.738% (1st)
8 January 12, 2020 11.349% (1st)12.031% (1st)
9 January 18, 2020 11.516% (1st)12.355% (1st)
10 January 19, 2020 14.633% (1st)15.903% (1st)
11 February 1, 2020[d]14.238% (1st)14.648% (1st)
12 February 2, 2020[d]15.933% (1st)16.413% (1st)
13 February 8, 2020 14.097% (1st)14.620% (1st)
14 February 9, 2020 17.705% (1st)18.612% (1st)
15 February 15, 2020 17.066% (1st)17.406% (1st)
16 February 16, 2020 21.683%(1st)23.249%(1st)
Average 12.150%12.863%
Special January 4, 2020 4.810% (1st)4.253% (1st)
Special January 5, 2020 3.975% (1st)3.252% (1st)
Special January 25, 2020 4.180% (1st)4.283% (1st)
  • In the table above, the blue numbers represent the lowest ratings and the red numbers represent the highest ratings.
  • On December 31, 2019, it was announced that the series would take a temporary hiatus and postponed the episodes that were scheduled to air on January 4 and 5. It was in order to protect the cast and crew from unsafe filming conditions due to the cold winter weather. Instead, tvN aired reruns of previous episodes that were specially re-edited for viewers.[79]


In May 2020 the show's scriptwriter, Park Ji-eun, was named "Person of the Year" by South Korea's Unification Ministry, for contributing to "unification education."[54][80]


On March 29, 2021, it was announced that Crash Landing on You will be adapted into a musical. The production companies Pop Music and T2N Media have completed a global copyright contract with Studio Dragon, and they plan to carry out the performances starting in Seoul in the middle of 2022.[93]


  1. ^Kim Ah-ra is a real North Korean defector who also appeared in Now On My Way to Meet You. In the variety show, she explained her impressions on filming and the comparisons with the real North Korea.
  2. ^Yoon Seol-mi is a real North Korean defector. She is an accordion player and, in the drama, she sells goods to passengers while playing her accordion.
  3. ^The character appears in a short crossover scene, alluding Kim Soo-hyun's previous work Secretly, Greatly (2011) where the character originally appears.
  4. ^ abThe broadcast was delayed due to the 2020 Lunar New Year special broadcast.


  1. ^Dong, Sun-hwa (November 18, 2019). "Sneak peek into romantic drama". The Korea Times. Retrieved December 15, 2019.
  2. ^"21.7%: 'Crash Landing on You' sets record for tvN drama". koreatimes. February 17, 2020. Retrieved May 30, 2020.
  3. ^ abcdefgKiew, Chelsea (February 18, 2020). "What Singapore fans say about K-drama Crash Landing On You and 7 things to know about the show". The Straits Times. Retrieved February 29, 2020.
  4. ^ abKang, Minji (October 20, 2019). "NETFLIX TO LAUNCH HIGHLY-ANTICIPATED ROMANTIC COMEDY CRASH LANDING ON YOU, STARRING HYUN BIN AND SON YE-JIN". Netflix Media Center. Retrieved October 23, 2019.
  5. ^Hosokawa, Kotaro (March 28, 2021). "'Crash Landing on You' studio glides Netflix boom to new heights". Asia Nikkei. Retrieved April 15, 2021.
  6. ^ abc"21.7%: 'Crash Landing on You' sets record for tvN drama". The Korea Times. The Korea Times. Retrieved March 4, 2020.
  7. ^"Seo Ji-hye Joins Writer Park Ji-eun in "Emergency Love Landing"". HanCinema. Nate. Retrieved July 18, 2019.
  8. ^""Crash Landing on You" Kim Jung-hyun, "My Life's Textbook Example"". HanCinema. Nate. Retrieved February 18, 2020.
  9. ^"Rookie Actor Lee Shin-young Cast for "Crash Landing on You"". HanCinema. Retrieved December 18, 2019.
  10. ^"Lee Shin-young (이시영, Korean actor)". HanCinema. Retrieved December 18, 2019.
  11. ^ ab"Oh Man-seok and Kim Young-min Join "Emergency Love Landing"". HanCinema. OSEN. Retrieved August 14, 2019.
  12. ^. KoreaWorldTimes (in Japanese). June 13, 2020. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  13. ^ abcd"Anthology short Documentary: The Next Entertainment Visionary (Overcoming Ideology Through Contents, Writer Park Ji-eun)". tvN. January 19, 2021. Retrieved February 16, 2021.
  14. ^Choon, Chang May (February 29, 2020). "South Korean drama Crash Landing On You offers glimpse of daily life in North Korea". The Straits Times. Retrieved February 29, 2020.
  15. ^Choon, Chang May (September 12, 2008). "Boat Carrying Actress Rescued Near Border". The Korea Times. Retrieved February 29, 2020.
  16. ^ abc"Crash Landing on You: The defector who brought North-South Korean romance to life". BBC. February 22, 2020. Retrieved February 22, 2020.
  17. ^ abcSon, Sarah A. (February 25, 2020). "Crash Landing on You: Korean drama crosses the north-south divide". The Conversation. Retrieved February 28, 2020.
  18. ^ abPark, Juwon (February 20, 2020). "Cross-border S Korean drama overcomes political risks". ABC News. Retrieved February 21, 2020.
  19. ^ abPark, Juwon (February 21, 2020). "Cross-border South Korean drama overcomes political risks". CTV News. Retrieved February 22, 2020.
  20. ^Editor (January 30, 2020). "K-Drama 'Crash Landing on You' on Netflix International is capturing hearts & eyeballs worldwide". KoreaTechDesk. Retrieved February 29, 2020.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  21. ^"사랑의 불시착 OST" [Crash Landing on You OST]. tvN (in Korean). Retrieved February 23, 2020.
  22. ^"사랑의 불시착 OST" [Crash Landing on You OST]. Bugs! (in Korean). Retrieved February 23, 2020.
  23. ^"Crash Landing on You (Original Television Soundtrack)". Apple Music. Retrieved December 8, 2020.
  24. ^
    • "사랑의 불시착 OST Part 1 (소개)". Naver Music (in Korean). Retrieved December 8, 2020.
    • "Crash Landing on You (Original Television Soundtrack), Pt. 1 - Single". Apple Music. Retrieved December 8, 2020.
    • "사랑의 불시착 OST Part 2 (소개)". Naver Music (in Korean). Retrieved December 8, 2020.
    • "Crash Landing on You (Original Television Soundtrack), Pt. 2 - Single". Apple Music. Retrieved December 8, 2020.
    • "사랑의 불시착 OST Part 3 (소개)". Naver Music (in Korean). Retrieved December 8, 2020.
    • "Crash Landing on You (Original Television Soundtrack), Pt. 3 - Single". Apple Music. Retrieved December 8, 2020.
    • "사랑의 불시착 OST Part 4 (소개)". Naver Music (in Korean). Retrieved December 8, 2020.
    • "Crash Landing on You (Original Television Soundtrack), Pt. 4 - Single". Apple Music. Retrieved December 8, 2020.
    • "사랑의 불시착 OST Part 5 (소개)". Naver Music (in Korean). Retrieved December 8, 2020.
    • "Crash Landing on You (Original Television Soundtrack), Pt. 5 - Single". Apple Music. Retrieved December 8, 2020.
    • "사랑의 불시착 OST Part 6 (소개)". Naver Music (in Korean). Retrieved December 8, 2020.
    • "Crash Landing on You (Original Television Soundtrack), Pt. 6 - Single". Apple Music. Retrieved December 8, 2020.
    • "사랑의 불시착 OST Part 7 (소개)". Naver Music (in Korean). Retrieved December 8, 2020.
    • "Crash Landing on You (Original Television Soundtrack), Pt. 7 - Single". Apple Music. Retrieved December 8, 2020.
    • "사랑의 불시착 OST Part 8 (소개)". Naver Music (in Korean). Retrieved December 8, 2020.
    • "Crash Landing on You (Original Television Soundtrack), Pt. 8 - Single". Apple Music. Retrieved December 8, 2020.
    • "사랑의 불시착 OST Part 9 (소개)". Naver Music (in Korean). Retrieved December 8, 2020.
    • "Crash Landing on You (Original Television Soundtrack), Pt. 9 - Single". Apple Music. Retrieved December 8, 2020.
    • "사랑의 불시착 OST Part 10 (소개)". Naver Music (in Korean). Retrieved December 8, 2020.
    • "Crash Landing on You (Original Television Soundtrack), Pt. 10 - Single". Apple Music. Retrieved December 8, 2020.
    • "사랑의 불시착 OST Part 11 (소개)". Naver Music (in Korean). Retrieved December 8, 2020.
    • "Crash Landing on You (Original Television Soundtrack), Pt. 11 - Single". Apple Music. Retrieved December 8, 2020.
  25. ^"2019 Week 51 Digital Chart". Gaon Music Chart (in Korean). December 15–21, 2019. Retrieved December 30, 2019.
  26. ^
Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crash_Landing_on_You
Waikiki - funny moments pt 1

Squid Game

2021 South Korean survival drama television series

This article is about the Netflix television series. For the Korean children's game, see Squid (game). For the video game, see Squids (video game).

Squid Game (Korean: 오징어 게임; RR: Ojing-eo Geim) is a South Korean survival drama television series streaming on Netflix. Written and directed by Hwang Dong-hyuk, it stars Lee Jung-jae, Park Hae-soo, Wi Ha-joon, Jung Ho-yeon, O Yeong-su, Heo Sung-tae, Anupam Tripathi, and Kim Joo-ryoung. The series, distributed by Netflix, was released worldwide on September 17, 2021.

The series revolves around a contest in which 456 players, drawn from different walks of life but each deeply in debt, play a series of children's games for the chance to win a ₩45.6 billion[a] prize, with a deadly penalty if they lose. The name of the series draws from a similarly named Korean children's game. Hwang had conceived of the idea based on his own economic struggles early in life as well as the class disparity in South Korea. Though he had initially written it in 2009, he was unable to find a production company to fund the idea until Netflix took an interest around 2019 as part of their drive to expand their foreign programming offerings. Hwang wrote and directed all nine episodes himself.

Squid Game received critical acclaim and attracted international attention. Within a week of its release, it became one of Netflix's most-watched programs in several regional markets; during its first four weeks from launch, it attracted more than 142 million viewers, surpassing 2020's Bridgerton as the network's most-watched series to date.


Seong Gi-hun (played by Lee Jung-jae), a divorced and indebted chauffeur, is invited to play a series of children's games for a chance at a large cash prize. Accepting the offer, he is taken to an unknown location where he finds himself among 456 players who are all deeply in debt. The players are made to wear green tracksuits and are kept under watch at all times by masked guards in pink jumpsuits, with the games overseen by the Front Man, who wears a black mask and black uniform. The players soon discover that losing a game results in their death, with each death adding ₩100 million to the potential ₩45.6 billion grand prize.[a] Gi-hun allies with other players, including his childhood friend Cho Sang-woo, to try to survive the physical and psychological twists of the games.[2][3]

Cast and characters

Main cast

Numbers in parentheses denote the character's assigned number in the Squid Game.

  • Lee Jung-jae as Seong Gi-hun (성기훈, Korean pronunciation: [sʌŋ gi hun], 456),[4] a divorced chauffeur and a gambling addict. He lives with his mother and struggles to support his daughter financially. He participates in the Game to settle his many debts, and to prove himself financially stable enough to have custody of his daughter.
  • Park Hae-soo as Cho Sang-woo (조상우, Korean pronunciation: [tɕo saŋ u], 218),[4] the former head of an investment team at a securities company. He was a junior classmate to Gi-hun who studied at Seoul National University. He is wanted by the police for stealing money from his clients, and using it to incur 6 billion won in debts from bad investments.
  • Wi Ha-joon as Hwang Jun-ho (황준호, Korean pronunciation: [hwaːŋ tɕun ho]),[5] a police officer who sneaks into the Game as a guard to find his missing brother.
  • Jung Ho-yeon as Kang Sae-byeok (강새벽, Korean pronunciation: [gaŋ sɛ bjʌk], 067),[6] a North Korean defector who enters the Game to pay for a broker to rescue her parents across the border, and buy a house for her reunited family to live in.
  • O Yeong-su as Oh Il-nam (오일남, Korean pronunciation: [o il nam], 001),[7] an elderly man with a brain tumor who prefers playing the Game as opposed to waiting to die in the outside world.
  • Heo Sung-tae as Jang Deok-su (장덕수, Korean pronunciation: [dzaŋ dʌk su], 101),[8] a gangster who enters the Game to settle his massive gambling debts, which includes money he stole from his boss and underlings.
  • Anupam Tripathi as Abdul Ali (알리, 199),[7] a migrant worker from Pakistan, who enters the Game to provide for his young family after his employer refuses to pay him for months.
  • Kim Joo-ryoung as Han Mi-nyeo (한미녀, Korean pronunciation: [han mi njʌ], 212),[9] a loud and manipulative woman who claims to be a poor single mother.

Recurring cast

  • Yoo Sung-joo as Byeong-gi (111),[10] a doctor who secretly works with a group of corrupt guards to traffic the organs of dead participants in exchange for information on upcoming games.
  • Lee Yoo-mi as Ji-yeong (240),[11] a young woman who was just released from prison after killing her abusive father.
  • Kim Si-hyun as Player 244, a pastor who rediscovers his faith during the Game.
  • Lee Sang-hee as Player 017,[12] a glass-maker with more than 30 years' experience.
  • Kim Yun-tae as Player 069, a player who joins the Game with his wife, Player 070.
  • Lee Ji-ha as Player 070,[13] a player who joins the Game with her husband, Player 069.
  • Kwak Ja-hyoung as Player 278, a player who joins Deok-su's group and acts as his henchman.
  • Chris Chan as Player 276,[14] a player who joins Seong Gi-hun's group in the Tug of War round.
  • Kim Young-ok as Gi-hun's mother[15]
  • Cho Ah-in as Seong Ga-yeong, Gi-hun's daughter
  • Kang Mal-geum as Gi-hun's ex-wife and Ga-yeong's mother[15]
  • Park Hye-jin as Sang-woo's mother
  • Park Si-wan as Kang Cheol, Sae-byeok's younger brother

Guest cast


Squid Game consists of one season of nine episodes at a run time of between 32 and 63 minutes. The series was released in its entirety in all Netflix worldwide markets on September 17, 2021.[20][21]



Around 2008, Hwang Dong-hyuk had tried unsuccessfully to get investment for a different movie script that he had written, and found himself broke. He spent his free time in manga cafes reading Japanese survival manga books such as Battle Royale, Liar Gameand Gambling Apocalypse: Kaiji.[22][23][24] Hwang compared the characters' situation in these works to his own current situation and considered the idea of being able to join such a survival game to win money to get him out of debt, leading him to write a film script on that concept throughout 2009.[24] Hwang stated, "I wanted to write a story that was an allegory or fable about modern capitalist society, something that depicts an extreme competition, somewhat like the extreme competition of life. But I wanted it to use the kind of characters we’ve all met in real life."[25] However, he feared the storyline was "too difficult to understand and bizarre" at the time.[26] Hwang tried to sell his story to various Korean production groups and actors, but had been told it was too grotesque and unrealistic.[27] Hwang put this script aside without any takers, and over the next ten years successfully completed three other films.[24]

In the 2010s, Netflix had seen a large growth in viewership outside of North America, and started investing in productions in other regions, including Korea.[28]Ted Sarandos, co-CEO of Netflix, stated in 2018 that they were looking for more successes from overseas productions: "The exciting thing for me would be if the next Stranger Things came from outside America. Right now, historically, nothing of that scale has ever come from anywhere but Hollywood."[29] Netflix took interest in Hwang's script in 2019,[27] and announced in September 2019 they would produce Hwang's work as an original series.[30] Netflix's Bela Bajaria, head of global television operations, said that of their interest in Hwang's work, "we knew it was going to be big in Korea because it had a well-regarded director with a bold vision", and that "K-Dramas also travel well across Asia".[28] Regarding his return to the project, Hwang commented, "It's a sad story. But the reason why I returned to the project is because the world 10 years from then has transformed to a place where these unbelievable survival stories are so fitting, and I found that this is the time when people will call these stories intriguing and realistic."[26] Hwang further believed that the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 and 2021 impacted the economic disparity between classes in South Korea, and said that "All of these points made the story very realistic for people compared to a decade ago".[27] With the Netflix order, the film concept was expanded out to a nine-episode series, and Hwang said he was able to expand the script so that it "could focus on the relationships between people [and] the stories that each of the people had".[31] Initially, Netflix had named the series Round Six, rather than Squid Game as Hwang had suggested; according to Netflix's vice president for content in Asia Minyoung Kim, while they knew that the name "squid game" would be familiar to Korean viewers from the children's game, it "wouldn't resonate because not many people would get it", and opted to use Round Six as it self-described the nature of the competition. As production continued, Hwang pushed on the service to use Squid Game instead, which Kim said its cryptic name and the unique visuals helped to draw in curious viewers.[30][32]

Hwang described the work as "a story about losers".[33] The names of the characters - Seong Gi-hun, Cho Sang-woo, and Il-nam - were all based on Hwang's childhood friends, as well as the character name Hwang Jun-ho, who was also a childhood friend in real life with an older brother named Hwang In-ho.[24] The two main characters Gi-hun and Sang-Woo were based on Hwang's own personal experiences and represented "two sides" of himself; Gi-hun shared the same aspects of being raised by an economically disadvantaged single mother in the Ssangmun district of Seoul, while Sang-Woo reflected on Hwang having attended Seoul National University with high expectations from his family and neighborhood.[24][33] Further, Gi-hun's background was inspired by the organizers of the SsangYong Motorlabor strike of 2009 [ko] against mass layoffs.[34]

Shapes punched into dalgona, a Korean sugar candy treat

Hwang based the narrative on Korean games of his childhood to show the irony of a childhood game where competition was not important becoming an extreme competition with people's lives at stake.[22] Additionally, as his initial script was intended for film, he opted to use children's games with simple rules that were easy to explain in contrast to other survival-type films using games with complex rules.[31] The central game he selected, the squid game, was a popular Korean children's game from the 1970s and 1980s.[30][35] Hwang recalled the squid game as "the most physically aggressive childhood game I played in neighborhood alleys as a kid, which is why I also loved it the most", and because of this "it's the most symbolic game that reflects today's competitive society, so I picked it out as the show’s title".[36] The "Red light, Green light" game was selected because of its potential to make a lot of losers in one go. Regarding the selection, Hwang said, "The game was selected because the scene filled with so many people randomly moving and stopping could be viewed as a ridiculous but a sad group dance."[22] Hwang joked that the dalgona candy game they chose may influence sales of dalgona, similar to how sales of Korean gats (traditional hats) bloomed after broadcast of Netflix's series Kingdom.[37] Licking the candy to free the shape was something that Hwang said that he had done as a child and brought it into the script.[36] Hwang had considered other Korean children's games such as Gonggi, Dong, Dong, Dongdaemun, and Why did you come to my house? (우리 집에 왜 왔니?, a Korean variant of the Hana Ichi Monme).[22]

Hwang wrote all of the series himself, taking nearly six months to write the first two episodes alone, after which he turned to friends to get input on moving forward.[25] Hwang also addressed the challenges of preparing for the show which was physically and mentally exhausting, saying six of his teeth fell out while making Season 1.[26] Hwang initially said that he has no immediate plans to write a sequel to Squid Game, stating that he did not have well-developed plans for a follow-up story and if he were to write one, he would likely have a staff of writers and directors to help.[25] Hwang said in an interview with The Times that a second season may focus more on the story of the Front Man as well as incorporating more about the police. Hwang himself had been a former police officer and said "I think the issue with police officers is not just an issue in Korea. I see it on the global news that the police force can be very late in acting on things—there are more victims or a situation gets worse because of them not acting fast enough. This was an issue that I wanted to raise."[38] He added he also wanted to explore the relationship between the cryptic Front Man and his policeman brother Hwang Jun-ho, as well as the background of the salesman character (portrayed by Gong Yoo in cameo).[39] With the popularity of the show, Hwang later opined about the possibility of a second season, telling CNN "There's nothing confirmed at the moment, but so many people are enthusiastic that I'm really contemplating it."[33]


Hwang asked actors Gong Yoo (left) and Lee Byung Hun in his previous films to appear in cameos as the recruiter and the Front Man, respectively, in Squid Game.

Hwang said he chose to cast Lee Jung-jae as Gi-hun as to "destroy his charismatic image portrayed in his previous roles".[40]Jung Ho-yeon was requested by her new management company to send a video to audition for the series while she was finishing a shoot in Mexico and preparing for New York Fashion Week. Although this was her first audition as an actor and her expectations were low, Hwang said, "The moment I saw her audition tape from New York, I immediately thought to myself, 'this is the girl we want.' My first impression of her was that she is wild and free like an untamed horse".[41][42][43] On casting Ali Abdul, Hwang said, “It was hard to find good foreign actors in Korea.” He chose Anupam Tripathi because of his emotional acting capabilities and fluency in Korean.[44] Both Gong Yoo and Lee Byung Hun had worked with Hwang during his previous films, Silenced and The Fortress respectively, and Hwang had asked both to appear in small roles within Squid Game.[41] The VIPs were selected from non-Korean actors living in Asia; in the case of Geoffrey Giuliano, who played the VIP that interacted with Jun-ho, his prior role from Train to Busan Presents: Peninsula led to his casting for Squid Game.[19]

Casting for the series was confirmed on June 17, 2020.[45]

Costume, set design, and filming

Production and filming of the series ran from June to October 2020, including a mandatory month break due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.[46] City scenes were filmed in Daejeon,[47] while the island setpieces were filmed on Seongapdo located in Ongjin.[48]

As Netflix was targeting the work for a global audience, the visuals were emphasized and some of the rules of the children's games were simplified to avoid potential issues with the language barrier.[27] The colorful sets and costumes were designed to look like a fantasy world. The players and soldiers each wear a distinctive color, to reduce the sense of individuality and emphasize the difference between the two groups.[22] The green tracksuits worn by the players were inspired by 1970s athletic wear, known as trainingbok (Korean: 트레이닝복).[49] The maze-like corridors and stairs drew inspiration from the 4-dimensional stair drawings of M. C. Escher. The complex network of tunnels between the arena, the dorm, and the administrative office was inspired by ant colonies.[22] The mint green and pink color theme throughout the show were a common theme from Korean schools in the 1970s and 1980s, and further reflected themes throughout the show, with the green-suited players to come in fear and consider around the color pink when they are exposed to this through the guards and the stairway room.[50]

The players' dormitory was envisioned with the concept of "people who are abandoned on the road" according to production designer Chae Kyoung-sun; this was also used in the tug-of-war game.[50] The room was designed using white tiles and the curved opening like a vehicular tunnel. The bed and stairs initially were laid out to look like warehouse shelves, but as the episodes progressed and these furnishing used as makeshift defenses, they took the appearance of broken ladders and stairs, implying the way these players were trapped with no way out, according to Chae.[50] The crew spent the most time crafting the set for the Marbles game, creating a mix of realism and fakeness as to mirror the life and death nature of the games themselves.[51] Chae stated that this set was designed as a combination of small theatrical stages, each stage representing parts of Player 001's memories.[50] The VIP room was one of the last pieces to be designed, and Chae said that they decided on an animal-based theme for both the costumes and room for this; "The VIPs are the kind of people who take other people’s lives for entertainment and treat them like game pieces on a chessboard, so I wanted to create a powerful and instinctive look for the room."[50]

Most sets were a combination of practical sets and chroma key backgrounds. For example, in the Glass Stepping Stones scenes, the set, designed as if in a circus tent for the players performing for the VIPs, was only 1.5 metres (4.9 ft) off the ground, using chroma key screens to simulate the height in post-production. In filming, this was far enough from the ground to make the actors nervous, which contributed to the scene.[51][50] The tug-of-war set was actually set more than 10 metres (33 ft) off the ground, which further created anxiety for some of the actors with fears of heights.[50]

The robot doll in the first episode, "Red Light, Green Light", was inspired by Younghee, a character who appeared on the covers of Korean textbooks Chul-soo and Young-hee in the 1970s and 1980s, and her hairstyle was inspired by Hwang's daughter's.[49][50] The doll singsongs, in Korean, "Mugunghwa Flower has Blossomed", referring to the hibiscus syriacus, the national flower of South Korea.[36] The use of this familiar character was meant to juxtapose memories of childhood and unsettling fear in the players, according to Chae.[50] Similarly, the set for the dalgona game, using giant pieces of playground equipment, were to evoke players' memories of their childhood, and was a common place where Korean children would have played dalgona with friends.[50] The dalgona used in "The Man with the Umbrella" were made by a street vendor from Daehangno.[52]

The English language logo for Squid Game, showing the incorporated use of the circle, triangle, and square shapes.

Throughout the series, the trio of circle, triangle, and square shapes appear frequently on the cards given to recruit players, on the guards' masks, and inside the show's title. These are shapes associated with the playing field for the children's game of Squid (Ojing-eo‎). They are also used to represent the hierarchy of the guards within the complex. Following from the comparison with an ant colony, the guards with circles are considered the workers, triangles as the soldiers, and squares as the managers. Further, in the Korean alphabet, Hangul, the circle represents the romanized letter "O", the triangle part of the letter "J", and the square the letter "M". Together, "OJM" are the romanized initials of Ojing-eo Geim, the Korean translation of Squid Game.[53]


Jung Jae-il, who had previously composed the soundtrack for Parasite, directed and composed Squid Game's score.[54] In addition to Jung's pieces, the soundtrack features songs by Park Min-ju and an artist known as 23.[54] Two classical music pieces are also used throughout the show as part of the routine for the players: the third movement of Joseph Haydn's "Trumpet Concerto" is used to wake the players, while Johann Strauss II's "The Blue Danube" is used to indicate the start of a new game.[54]Ludwig van Beethoven's "Fifth Symphony" is also used for background music in the VIP lounge.[54] A cover of "Fly Me to the Moon", arranged by Jung and sung by Korean artist Joo Won Shin, was used over the "Red Light, Green Light" game of the first episode; according to Joo, Hwang wanted a contrast between the brutal killing of the players in the game and the "romantic and beautiful lyrics and melody" of the song, such that the scene "embodies the increasingly polarized capitalist society that we live in today in a very compressed and cynical way".[55]

The soundtrack was released on September 17, 2021.[56]

1."Way Back Then[d]"Jung Jae-ilJung Jae-il2:31
2."Round I"Jung Jae-ilJung Jae-il1:19
3."The Rope Is Tied"Jung Jae-ilJung Jae-il3:18
4."Pink Soldiers"23230:38
5."Hostage Crisis"23232:22
6."I Remember My Name"Jung Jae-il 3:13
7."Unfolded..."Jung Jae-il 2:38
8."Needles and Dalgona"Park Min-ju 3:44
9."The Fat and the Rats"Park Min-ju 1:52
10."It Hurts So Bad"Jung Jae-il 1:13
11."Delivery"23 4:55
12."Dead End"23 5:25
13."Round VI[e]"Jung Jae-il 5:54
14."Wife, Husband and 4.56 Billion"Jung Jae-il 4:26
15."Murder Without Violence"Park Min-ju 1:53
16."Slaughterhouse III"Jung Jae-il 8:16
17."Owe"Jung Jae-il 2:26
18."Uh..."Jung Jae-il 3:38
19."Dawn"Jung Jae-il 6:41
20."Let's Go Out Tonight"Jung Jae-il 3:27
Total length:69:49


In the Philippines, a replica of the doll used in the show was exhibited on Ortigas Avenue in Quezon City in September 2021.[58]

A more complete set replica was exhibited at the Itaewon station in Seoul. However, the exhibit was prematurely closed due to COVID-19 quarantine regulation concerns.[59]

A Squid Gamepop-up store opened in Paris on October 2 and 3, and a person could win a free one-month Netflix subscription if they managed to get the right shape from the dalgona in one minute and 30 seconds.[60][61]

In the Netherlands, Netflix hosted its own Squid Game where people were able to play the game Red Light, Green Light in both Maastricht and Rotterdam. A replica of the doll was exhibited and staff were dressed as guards. Winners were awarded with Squid Game memorabilia. The event attracted hundreds of people.[62][63][64]

In October 2021, the Hollywood Reporter interviewed Netflix Asia's executive Minyoung Kim, who said that the company was looking into a possible video game adaptation of the series.[32]


Critical reception

The show received critical acclaim.[65] According to the review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes, 92% of 50 critics have given the series a positive review, with an average rating of 8.2/10. The website's critics consensus reads: "Squid Game's unflinching brutality is not for the faint of heart, but sharp social commentary and a surprisingly tender core will keep viewers glued to the screen – even if it's while watching between their fingers."[66] On Metacritic, the series has a weighted average score of 69 out of 100 based on 11 critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews".[67]

Joel Keller of Decider opined that the concept of the show was creative. When writing about the narrative, he described it as "a tight narrative and a story that has the potential to be tense and exciting." Keller concluded, "STREAM IT. Squid Game takes a fresh idea and spins it into a thrilling drama; we hope it continues to build the tension we saw in the last 20 minutes throughout the season."[68] Pierce Conran of the South China Morning Post rated the series with 4.5 out of 5 stars and wrote, "Overall, this is still a savagely entertaining slam dunk from Netflix Korea, which is likely to be embraced around the world as its predecessors were."[69] Hidzir Junaini of NME rated the series with 4 out of 5 stars and opined, "Thematic intelligence aside, Squid Game is also a white-knuckle watch, thanks to its visceral competition element."[70] John Doyle of The Globe and Mail described the series as "a brave, dark, ambitious tale, at times moving and at times terrifying" and added, "Its power is in its understanding that money is survival. This is not some dystopian fantasy like Hunger Games. This is present-day life in all its complex awfulness."[71]

Brian Lowry of CNN wrote that the series "presents a visually arresting variation on themes seen plenty of times before, which include tapping into the class divide – and the rich essentially preying on the poor and destitute – at a moment when the audience might be more receptive to that message."[72] Henry Wong of The Guardian compared the show favorably to the 2019 South Korean film Parasite, and said that the show used the "present-day, very real wealth inequality" in South Korea as a backdrop to keep the viewer interested in its characters.[73] Caitlin Clark of American socialist magazine Jacobin also compared the series favorably to Parasite and said that it "shreds the capitalist myth that hard work guarantees prosperity".[74] Melanie McFarland of the American liberal website Salon.com described the series as "an excellent distillation of how predatory capitalism works."[75]

Writing for The New York Times, TV critic Mike Hale found Squid Game to be an "utterly traditional, and thoroughly predictable ... melodrama" with "eye-catching" but "not especially interesting ... production design and costuming". He also thought the series' "pretense of contemporary social relevance" failed to justify its "more than mildly sickening" violence, and thought its characters were "shallow assemblages of family and battlefield clichés".[76] Daniel D'Addario of Variety wrote: "Like Joker, there’s a having-it-both-ways insistence that a culture that could create violence is inherently sick and deranged, while playing out a wildly overstated version of sick derangement in a manner designed to be maximally tense and amusing."[77]

The series also drew some criticism for its similarity to the 2014 Japanese film As the Gods Will. Like the manga upon which the film was based, Squid Game features dangerous versions of children's games such as Daruma-san ga koronda, the Japanese version of Red Light, Green Light. Responding to allegations of plagiarism, director Hwang Dong-hyuk stated that he had been working on the script since at least 2008 and that similarities between the two films, of which he had been made aware during the process of filming, were coincidental.[78][79] He acknowledged that he had been inspired by Japanese comics and animation, including Battle Royale and Liar Game.[25]


The series became the first Korean drama to top Netflix's top ten weekly most-watched TV show charts globally. It reached number one in 90 countries, including the United States and the United Kingdom.[80][81][73] Netflix estimated that Squid Game had drawn over 111 million viewers worldwide after 17 days of availability,[82][f] and over 142 million viewers after 28 days,[83] surpassing the 82 million that Bridgerton had received in its first 28 days in December 2020, and becoming the service's most-watched series at its launch.[84] Although Netflix is not available in mainland China, pirated versions of Squid Game have been widely circulated on the Chinese Internet and the show has become a popular topic on Chinese social networking sites.[85] Outside of Asian regions, its popularity was driven primarily through word of mouth and viral spread on social media. Vulture also claimed that the show's widespread localization, with subtitles in 37 languages and dubbed versions in 34 languages, helped to capture an international audience.[29] Hwang believed that the popularity was due "by the irony that hopeless grownups risk their lives to win a kids' game", as well as the familiarity and simplicity of the games that allowed the show to focus on characterization.[86] The diversity of the characters that play the Squid Game, drawing from different walks of lower- and middle-class life, also helps draw audiences to watch as many could find sympathy in one or more of the characters.[86]

According to Bloomberg News, by October 2021, Netflix estimated that Squid Game had generated nearly US$900 million in value based on extended viewer data,[87]; it cost $21.4 million to produce.[88] Due to Squid Game's surprising success for Netflix, operators of other streaming services with original content, such as Disney+, Paramount+ and Apple TV+, have begun looking to follow Netflix's model of discovering regional content beyond Hollywood and finding similarly successful works for their platforms, with one executive calling this an area of "unlimited potential".[89] Besides bringing new ideas and veering from common themes of typical Hollywood productions, such foreign productions are typically less expensive to make, with tax breaks or incentives by the host country for filming and production.[90] Several producers of non-US TV series, who had little luck in pitching their shows to US-based streaming services in the past, were hopeful that these services would now seriously consider their works as a result of Squid Game's success.[89]

Public response

Some bilingual viewers have debated the quality of Netflix's translations, observing that the English closed captioning, which was based on the English dub, changed the meaning of some dialogue when compared to the original Korean. Bilingual performers for the English dub acknowledged that there were some translation issues, but this type of work was challenging due to limitations on how captioning can be presented to viewers.[91]

While all of the actors saw increases in followers on their social media accounts in the weeks after Squid Game premiered, Jung Ho-yeon saw one of the largest increases, going from about 400,000 to over 13 million followers in three weeks after Squid Game premiered.[92] In October 2021, the fashion brand Louis Vuitton announced Jung Ho-Yeon as their new global ambassador for fashion, watches, and jewelry; creative director Nicolas Ghesquière said he "immediately fell in love with Ho Yeon's great talent and fantastic personality" from her performance on Squid Game.[93]

In South Korea, the popularity of Squid Game led to a surge of network traffic which caused SK Broadband to file a lawsuit against Netflix, seeking monetary damages to pay for increased broadband usage and maintenance costs associated with the program.[94] One of the phone numbers used in the show belonged to a private resident who reported receiving up to 4,000 calls each day from people, several of whom desired to play a real-life version of the game;[95] Netflix stated they would edit the show to remove the number.[96]

As the series was introduced ahead of the 2022 South Korean presidential election, several of the candidates began using some of the Squid Game imagery in their political ads and challenging opponents to similar games,[27] as well as using the themes of the series related to economic disparity as part of their political platform.[97] A North Korean state-run website used Squid Game to critically mock the economic situation in South Korea, claiming that it exposes the "beastly" nature of the "South Korean capitalist society where mankind is annihilated by extreme competition," and describes South Korea as a country where "corruption and immoral scoundrels are commonplace".[98][99] A diplomatic cable of the United States Department of State said, "At the heart of the show's dark story is the frustration felt by the average Korean, and particularly Korean youth, who struggle to find employment, marriage, or upward mobility—proving that grim economic prospects are indeed at the center of Korean society’s woes."[100]

Vendors of dalgona, the honeycomb candy featured in the second game, both within Korea and internationally found a significant increase in sales after the show's release.[101][102] Everyday clothing items matching those worn in the show saw large growths in sales in the weeks after the show's initial broadcast, such as Vans slip-on shoes which spiked by 7,800%. Variety attributed this sales increase in part to preparation for Halloween costumes inspired by the show.[103][104][105] Vendors of other costume props that mirrored those in the show, such as the guards' masks, also saw sales spikes in advance of Halloween following the show's premiere.[106]

Netflix claimed that Squid Game had "pierced the cultural zeitgeist" and became a popular Internet meme, with over 42 billion views of videos related to Squid Game in the first month after broadcast.[83] Shortly after the show's release, users of social media adapted some of the games featured in Squid Game as Internet challenges, including the first "Red Light, Green Light" game and the second honeycomb cookie game.[107] Users of video games supporting user-created content, such as Roblox, Fortnite Creative, and Grand Theft Auto Online, created numerous games within these systems that were based on one or more of the Squid Game challenges.[108][109][110] Some groups also worked to organize safe, mock Squid Game events for fans of the show.[111][112] A number of schools around the United Kingdom observed that despite the show being aimed at mature audiences, young children were emulating some of the games from Squid Game during school recess, and warned parents about these activities.[113]

Saturday Night Live parodied Squid Game on its October 16, 2021, show as part of a country song sung by Pete Davidson and guest Rami Malek.[114]

See also


  1. ^ abAt the time of broadcast, ₩45.6 billion was approximately €33 million or US$38 million.
  2. ^lit. The day hibiscus bloomed. The English title references the game Red Light, Green Light. The Korean title references the Korean version of the game.
  3. ^The title is a reference to the 1924 Korean novel with the same name that tells the story of a rickshaw man initially being happy earning a lot of money from having a lot of customers on a rainy day, and thrilled to buy his wife some soup, only to find his wife dead in her house.
  4. ^The song used a medieval recorder.[57]
  5. ^The song was played by the Budapest scoring orchestra.[57]
  6. ^One "viewer" is defined by Netflix as a subscriber having viewed any portion of a work longer than two minutes.[82]


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  34. ^Seo Jeong-min (September 29, 2021). ""'오징어 게임' 속 달고나 뜬다고 농담했는데 진짜 떠서 얼떨떨"" ["I joked that dalgona in 'Squid Game' was floating, but I was really shocked."]. Hankyoreh Newspaper (in Korean). Archived from the original on September 29, 2021. Retrieved October 2, 2021.
  35. ^Lee Jeong-yeon (August 6, 2021). "'고요의 바다' '오징어게임'…넷플릭스 대작들 개봉박두'" ['Squid Game'... Netflix's blockbuster releases]. Sports Donga (in Korean). Naver. Archived from the original on August 11, 2021. Retrieved August 12, 2021.
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  37. ^Gyu-lee, Lee (September 30, 2021). "As big as BTS: Squid Game director on why Netflix thriller's global success is not a surprise – 'the most Korean is the most universal'". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on October 2, 2021. Retrieved October 3, 2021.
  38. ^Cuttle, Jade (October 4, 2021). "Squid Game's Jung Ho-yeon: 'The most powerful lesson I learnt was to have faith in humanity'". The Times. Archived from the original on October 4, 2021. Retrieved October 4, 2021.
  39. ^"Squid Game director Hwang Dong-hyuk shares plans for second season". The Straits Times (Singapore). October 10, 2021. Archived from the original on October 10, 2021. Retrieved October 10, 2021.
  40. ^"'오징어 게임' 황동혁 감독 "이정재 이미지 망가뜨리고 싶어 캐스팅"". Hankook Ilbo. September 15, 2021. Archived from the original on October 2, 2021. Retrieved October 2, 2021.
  41. ^ abCho, EK (September 29, 2021). "'Squid Game' Director Hwang Dong Hyuk Talks About Gi Hun's Red Hair, Possible Season 2 and Star-studded Cameos". Zapzee. Archived from the original on October 8, 2021. Retrieved October 5, 2021.
  42. ^Jo Ji-young (October 1, 2021). "[인터뷰①] 정호연 "뉴욕서 진심 담아 찍은 오디션 영상→캐스팅 후 부담감 몰려와"('오징어게임')" [[Interview ①] Jeong Ho-yeon "Audition video taken in New York with sincerity → The pressure comes after casting" ('Squid Game')] (in Korean). Sports Chosun. Archived from the original on October 2, 2021. Retrieved October 2, 2021 – via Naver.
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Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Squid_Game

Wikipedia korean drama

Reply (TV series)

Reply (Korean: 응답하라; RR: Eungdapara) is a South Koreananthologytelevision series directed by Shin Won-ho with teleplay by Lee Woo-jung that premiered in 2012 on cable network tvN.[1] It revolves around a group of friends, as the timeline moves back and forth between their past and present selves.[2][3]

The series received acclaim from critics for its performances and soundtrack in addition to being a well-researched production full of humor and heart.[4][5] It has also recorded consistent high audience ratings with Reply 1988 peaking at 18.8% nationwide, making it the (currently fourth) highest rated drama in Korean cable television history.[6][7][8]


Season 1: Reply 1997[edit]

Main article: Reply 1997

Set in 1997, the drama centers around a female high school student Shi Won, who idolizes boyband H.O.T. and her 5 high school friends in Busan. As the timeline moves back and forth between their past as 18-year-old high schoolers in 1997 and their present as 33-year-olds at their high school reunion dinner in 2012, one couple will announce that they're getting married.[9]

Season 2: Reply 1994[edit]

Main article: Reply 1994

Set in 1994, six university students from various provincial areas live together at a boarding house in Sinchon, Seoul, run by a couple with a daughter named Na Jung. The timeline moves back and forth between the past in 1994 and the present in 2013, making the viewers guess who will become Na Jung's husband among the male characters.[10] The series follows the pop culture events that happened between 1994 and the years that follow, including the emergence of seminal K-pop group Seo Taiji and Boys and the Korean Basketball League.[11]

Season 3: Reply 1988[edit]

Main article: Reply 1988

Set in the year 1988, it revolves around five friends and their families living in the same neighborhood of Ssangmun-dong, Dobong District, Northern Seoul.[12]


  • 1 Cameo appearance only.
  • 2 Supporting character.


  1. ^"[Oh!쎈 수다①]신원호 "'응팔', 꼴도 보기 싫었지만 끝낼 수 없었죠"(창간 12주년 특집)" (in Korean). M.entertain.naver.com. 2016-10-27. Retrieved 2016-12-03.
  2. ^"[Oh!쎈 수다③]신원호 "박보검, 그만 좀 연락하길~"(창간 12주년 특집)" (in Korean). M.entertain.naver.com. 2016-10-27. Retrieved 2016-12-03.
  3. ^"[Oh!쎈 수다②]신원호 "배우들 다 잘 됐는데 '응팔' 저주?"(창간 12주년 특집)" (in Korean). M.entertain.naver.com. 2016-10-27. Retrieved 2016-12-03.
  4. ^"The Power of Pop Culture in "Reply 1988"". The New Yorker.
  5. ^입력 : 2016-10-10 [01:44:25] 수정 : 2016-10-12 [13:15:34]. "부산일보". News20.busan.com. Retrieved 2016-12-03.
  6. ^"'tvN시상식' 진짜 주인공은 나영석·신원호PD" (in Korean). M.entertain.naver.com. Retrieved 2016-12-03.
  7. ^"Reply 1988 Writes Cable Television History". Stoo Asaie.
  8. ^"January 16, 2016 Nationwide Cable Ratings". Nielsen Korea.
  9. ^Sunwoo, Carla (14 July 2012). "New drama to tackle obsessed fans". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
  10. ^Chung, Ah-young (November 25, 2013). "Going retro". The Korea Times. Retrieved January 5, 2014.
  11. ^"Casting call for sequel of Reply 1997 revealed". The Korea Herald. June 21, 2013. Retrieved January 5, 2014.
  12. ^"Reply 1988 ready to captivate viewers". The Korea Times. September 23, 2015. Retrieved September 30, 2015.

External links[edit]

Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reply_(TV_series)

The Penthouse: War in Life

South Korean suspense drama TV series (2020–21)

The Penthouse: War in Life[7] (Korean: 펜트하우스; RR: Penteuhauseu; lit. Penthouse) is a South Korean television series starring Lee Ji-ah, Kim So-yeon, Eugene,[8]Um Ki-joon, Yoon Jong-hoon, and Park Eun-seok.[9][10] The series, directed by Joo Dong-min and written by Kim Soon-ok,[11] spins the story of a real estate and education war, a desire to be number one. It depicts the solidarity and revenge of women who turned to evilness to protect themselves and their children.[12][13] It premiered on SBS TV on October 26, 2020.[14] The first look teaser was released on September 29, 2020.[15] The teaser for season two was released on January 12, 2021.[16][17] The teaser for season three was released on May 27, 2021.[18]

At the end of the first season, the series with 5.354 million viewers is placed at 9th rank in the Top 50 Korean television series per nationwide viewers.[19] The series achieved the number-one position in all-channel mini-series, 21 times in a row from its first broadcast on October 26, 2020 to the last episode on January 5, 2021.[20]

As of the ending of the second season on April 2, 2021, the series with 5.69 million viewers is placed at 8th rank in the Top 50 Korean television series per nationwide viewers.[21] The series achieved the number-one position in all-channel mini-series, 13 times in a row from its first broadcast on February 19, 2021 to the last episode on April 2, 2021.[22]

As of the ending of the third season on September 10, 2021, the series with 3.77 million viewers is placed at 18th rank in the Top 50 Korean television series per nationwide viewers.[23]

Series overview[edit]


Season 1[edit]

Penthouse tells the story of wealthy families living in Hera Palace and their children at Cheong-ah Arts School.

Shim Su-ryeon (Lee Ji-ah) is an elegant, wealthy woman who has a tragic past. Her husband is Joo Dan-tae (Uhm Ki-joon), a successful businessman. She later learns that he is hiding a secret from her.

Oh Yoon-hee (Eugene) comes from a humble family background. She has had bad blood with Cheon Seo-jin (Kim So-yeon), a famous soprano whose father is the head of Cheong-ah Arts School, since high school. They get involved in a love triangle relationship with Ha Yoon-cheol (Yoon Jong-hoon).

All of them have grand ambitions and desires for their children and would do anything for them. However, their lives begin to crumble as a young mysterious girl named Min Seol-ah (Jo Soo-min) falls to her death during a party at Hera Palace. While the Hera Palace residents try to cover up the fact that she died on the premises, they cannot help but suspect each other for the murder.

Season 2[edit]

Penthouse 2 focuses on Shim Su-ryeon's secrets and the aftermath of her death, Oh Yoon-hee's revenge, Cheon Seo-jin's downfall, and the Hera Palace kids who want to be the best and win the grand award at the Cheong-ah Arts Festival.

After successfully framing Oh Yoon-hee for murder, Cheon Seo-jin and Joo Dan-tae decided to get married. Their engagement party is interrupted by Oh Yoon-hee and Ha Yoon-cheol, who have just come back from the United States. As the secrets unveil, the relationships among the people at Hera Palace are entangled, yet another mysterious figure appears and confronts them.

Season 3[edit]

Penthouse 3 focuses on the residents of Hera Place after their trials and their kids who prepare themselves to take the college entrance examination.

Just when Shim Su-Ryeon, who faked her death in Season 1, thinks she can finally live happily, Logan Lee (Park Eun-seok) dies right before her eyes. Meanwhile, the Hera Place residents get out of prison and attempt to get their lives back together. This starts the final lap of greed, corruption, justice and redemption.


Character appearances[edit]

Character Portrayed by Season
Shim Su-ryeon Lee Ji-ahMain
Na Ae-kyo Main
Cheon Seo-jin Kim So-yeonMain
Oh Yoon-hee Eugene
Joo Dan-tae/Baek Joon-ki Um Ki-joonRecurring
Ha Yoon-cheol Yoon Jong-hoon
Lee Kyu-jin Bong Tae-gyu
Kang Ma-ri Shin Eun-kyung
Go Sang-ah Yoon Joo-hee
Joo Seok-hoon Kim Young-dae
Joo Seok-kyung Han Ji-hyun
Ha Eun-byeol Choi Ye-bin
Bae Ro-na Kim Hyun-soo
Yoo Jenny Jin Ji-hee
Lee Min-hyeok Lee Tae-vin
Secretary Jo Kim Dong-kyu
Ma Doo-ki Ha Do-kwon
Wang Mi-ja Seo Hye-rin
Logan Lee Park Eun-seok
Gu Ho-dong Recurring
Alex Lee Guest
Jin Bun-hong Ahn Yeon-hong Recurring
Yoo Dong-pil Park Ho-san Guest Recurring
Baek Joon-ki / Joo Dan-tae On Joo-wan
Joo Hye-in Na So-ye Guest Guest
Anna Lee/Min Seol-ah Jo Soo-minGuest
Cheon Myung-soo Jung Sung-mo
Kang Ok-gyo Ha Min Guest
Cheon Seo-young Shin Seo-hyun
Yoon Tae-joo Lee Cheol-min Guest
Su-ryeon's ex husband, Seol-ah and Seok-kyung's father Ki Tae-hwa
Detective in charge of Oh Yoon-hee's investigation Kim Sa-kwon
Journalist Kim Jung-min Ki Eun-se Guest
Bae Ho-cheol Choi Won-young Guest
Yoon-hee's mother-in-law Hwang Young-hee
Seo-young's husband Ahn Tae-hwan


Shim Su-ryeon: She is a tragic heroine of this series. A graceful, dignified woman who is humane and kind, despite her immense wealth. She and her husband, Joo Dan-tae live in the penthouse, making her the queen of the social clique at Hera Palace. Despite knowing about her husband's affair with Cheon Seo-jin, she is determined to take revenge for her long lost, daughter Min Seol-ah.
Na Ae-kyo: Business partner and mistress of Joo Dan-tae, lover of Jung Doo-man as well as the biological mother of Joo Seok-hoon. She bears a striking resemblance to Shim Su-Ryeon and has a butterfly tattoo on her back.
She is one of the main antagonists of this series. A wealthy woman who is the epitome of showy and arrogant and who harbors warped ambitions. She is a woman who would do anything for power, money and pride. She and Oh Yoon-hee have been rivals since their childhood. She pushes her daughter, Ha Eun-Byeol, to sing well to beat Oh Yoon-hee's daughter, Bae Ro-na, who is better than her. Although Seo-jin pressures her daughter to become a perfectionist, she loves her daughter and willing to risk her life to protect her daughter.
A woman whose dreams have been stunted by her lack of money and power. With gritted teeth, she has had to take on any job and humiliation to support her daughter's ambitions. Oh Yoon-hee and Cheon Seo-jin have been rivals since their chilhood. She does everything in her power to move up socially so that her child, Bae Ro-na can enter Cheong-ah Arts School.


Shim Su-ryeon/Na Ae-kyo's family
Joo Dan-tae and Na Ae-kyo's son; Shim Su-ryeon's stepson. He is a calm, self-contained, and observant piano student who protects his twin sister, Seok-kyung from their abusive father. Due to his father's evil deeds, he slowly develops being resentful towards him as the series progresses. He fell in love with Bae Ro-na, despite Ha Eun-byeol's jealousy and his twin sister's vehement disapproval.
Shim Su-ryeon's biological twin daughter; Min Seol-Ah's younger fraternal twin sister; Joo Dan-tae's stepdaughter. She is a cunning, selfish, and scheming soprano student. She has been physically and emotionally abused by Joo Dan-tae which caused her to bully other classmates without having sympathies, taking Su-ryeon for granted, and controlling Seok-hoon for her needs.
Shim Su-ryeon's biological twin daughter; Joo Seok-kyung's older fraternal twin sister; Alex and Logan Lee's adopted sister. Seol-ah was switched at birth with Joo Hye-in by Joo Dan-tae. She was an intelligent, humane, compassionate, and hard-working; has the gifted talent of a soprano singer. She disguised as Anna Lee, a math tutor who studied at UCLA and tutored the Hera Kids. Later she entered the Cheong-Ah Art School but got bullied a lot by them
Kim Mi-sook's biological daughter; raised by Shim Su-ryeon. She was switched at birth with Min Seol-ah. Being born sickly during birth, Joo Dan-tae tried to kill her in order to get her share of properties but Su-ryeon saved her and sent her to America where she currently resides.
Cheon Seo-jin's family
  • Um Ki-joon as Joo Dan-tae (Fake Identity)/Baek Joon-ki (Real Identity)
The one of the main antagonists of the series. Former husband of Shim Su-ryeon. Former lover of Na Ae-kyo, current husband of Cheon Seo-jin. The Chairman of J King Holding who rakes in money with every investment he makes and only cares about getting more. He is a very cruel, greedy, sadistic, manipulative, and a control freak who will not hesitate to kill anyone who gets into his way and turn against him. His goal is to build a luxury building called "Joo Dan-tae Village" in Cheon-su district.
Cheon Seo-jin and Ha Yoon-cheol's daughter; She is constantly pressured by her mother to sing better than Bae Ro-na and she is in love with Joo Seok-hoon. At first, Eun-byeol seems to be nice; however, due to her mother's expectations and Joo Seok-kyung's influence, her personality changes drastically. Although she is evil like her mother, she is easily tormented by manipulative people. The pressure caused by her mother makes her more psychopathic, diagnosed imposter syndrome and develop hatred against Bae Ro-na.
  • Jung Sung-mo as Cheon Myung-soo
Seo-jin's father. He is very intent on keeping Cheong-ah's reputation intact due to which he tried to give the foundation to Seo-young after Seo-jin's divorce and an affair is known to him.
Seo-jin's stepmother but failed to take care of Eun-byeol while she was in prison.
  • Shin Seo-hyun as Cheon Seo-young
Seo-jin's younger sister who is later caught having an affair with another man behind her husband's back, which Seo-jin uses against her.
  • Ahn Tae-hwan as Seo-young's husband
Seo-jin's brother-in-law.
Oh Yoon-hee's family
Former husband of Cheon Seo-jin and current husband and first love of Oh Yoon-hee. An ambitious man who believes that a man must hold wealth and power. He is the head of surgery in the VIP department of a hospital. He divorces Seo-jin at the end of season 1, marries Yoon-hee in season 2, his first love.
Ha Yoon-cheol and Oh Yoon-hee's daughter; Ha Eun-byeol's half-sister. She is a gifted soprano singer, wants to do her best in school and enter the Seoul National University. She was scammed by Ma Du-ki and was on the waiting list to enter Cheong-ah High School, but she managed to get in because of Min Seol-ah's death. Similar to Seol-ah, she has been dealing a lot with humiliation and unfair treatment by her classmates and Hera Palace residents; however, she is able to stand up for herself.
She was paid by Cheon Seo-jin to go to Hera Palace and make a scene, accusing Yoon-hee of not letting her visit her granddaughter, Ro-na, and blames Yoon-hee for the death of her son. She is a woman who would do anything for money.
  • Choi Won-young as Bae Ho-cheol
Yoon-hee's first husband. Later on, it was revealed that he cheated on Yoon-hee. He died prior to the events in the series.
Kang Ma-ri and family
A woman who has recently come into wealth and leads a secretive double life. She lies to everyone in Hera Palace that her husband, Yoo Jenny's father, is in Dubai, but in reality, he is in prison. She bribes the guards with expensive goods to let her in to see her husband in prison. She advises her daughter to become friends with Joo Seok-hoon, Joo Seok-kyung, Lee Min-hyeok, and Ha Eun-byeol so that she can get on the good side of the wealthy people of Hera Palace.
Kang Ma-ri and Yoo Dong-pil's daughter. She went to the same middle school as Bae Ro-na. She and Ro-na were enemies. She accused Ron-Na of poisoning her drink which nearly caused Ro-na to be expelled from school. However, at the end of season 1, she started to warm up with Ron-na by giving her food when Ro-Na was accused to be the daughter of a murderer. Later, she starting to develop a friendship with Ro-na.
Kang Ma-ri's husband and Jenny's father. He loves his family so much even he doesn't pressure his daughter. He was previously in prison and was released at the end of season 2.
Lee Kyu-jin and family
The only son and momma's boy of a wealthy family of judges and lawyers, and is himself a lawyer. In season 2, he becomes an assemblyman in Gangnam.
Wife of Lee Kyu-jin and a former announcer. She is unhappy in her marriage, and constantly bullied by her mother-in-law and sisters-in-law.
  • Lee Tae-vin as Lee Min-hyeok
Lee Kyu-jin and Go Sang-ah's spoiled son who loves to bully his classmates for amusement due to Joo Seok-kyung's influence, and doesn't have any significant interests.
  • Seo Hye-rin as Wang Mi-ja
Kyu-jin's mother and former actress who has an amassed a fortune from a career in culinary television.


Gu Ho-dong: A strict and nice PE teacher at Cheong-ah Arts School. He does the right thing to punishes students from Cheong-ah Arts School for bullying Bae Ro-na and Min Seol-ah even though many parents and faculty were not happy about it. His real identity was Logan Lee, an American billionaire of ethnic Korean descent.
Logan Lee: He is a Korean-American successful billionaire, Alex Lee's younger brother, and Min Seol-ah's older adoptive brother who grew up with bone narrow illness believes in justice. He was super close to his adopted sister and was extremely upset at his parents for using her as his donator. He even overheard the entire incident when Seol-ah was bullied by Hera Palace Kids while he was on the phone with her, and he determines to punish them. He teams up with Su-ryeon by taking down on Hera Palace residents for Seol-ah's death, eventually grows feelings for Su-ryeon by understanding her pain and hardship. He is willing to risk his life to protect her from danger.
Alex Lee: He is Logan's older brother and is 2 years older than Logan. He came to the Penthouse to find out more about Logan's alleged death and shows bitterness towards Su-ryeon. Unlike Logan, Alex is hot-tempered and shows a tough love for his brother. He was shown to be extremely fluent in English and rarely spoke Korean in his dialogues. Interestingly, many of the main characters who interacted with Alex had no difficulty in understanding his words.
Music teacher at Cheong-ah Arts School. He is a man who would do anything for money. In season 3, he was dismissed in all positions of Cheong-ah Arts School because of his wrongdoings.
  • Lee Cheol-min as Yoon Tae-joo
Joo Dan-tae's previous secretary, he betrayed Dan-tae and was later killed in a car accident.
  • Kim Dong-kyu as Secretary Jo
The current secretary of Joo Dan-tae.
Cheon Seo-jin personal secretary.
  • Kim Jae-hong as Secretary Hong
The secretary of Logan Lee.
She is undercover for Logan Lee working as a personal tutor and caretaker for Eun-byeol. As part of her job, she relates information to Yoon-hee and Logan.
Initially named "Joon-ki", a mysterious figure who appeared at the end of Season 2, sitting beside Logan Lee during his return flight to South Korea and was last seen hastily leaving Logan's car moments before the explosion. In Season 3, it was revealed (through an extended scene with Logan inside the plane) that Baek Joon-ki's real name is Joo Dan-tae, and that the person who has long been using his identity was actually named Baek Joon-ki (hence his "Mister Baek" moniker), who also stole his parents' fortune after killing them in Japan. He is the only person who knows Joo Dan-tae's darkest secret.
  • Lee So-yeon as Kim Mi-sook
Joo Hye-in's biological mother who abandoned Hye-in for money was murdered by Joo Dan-tae.

Special appearances[edit]

Season 1

  • Byeon Woo-min as Congressman Jo Sang-heon (Ep. 1–2, 4–5)
He attempted to kill Su-Ryeon when she found out about his fraud but was later murdered.
  • Ki Tae-hwa as Su-ryeon's ex-husband (Ep. 3)
He was murdered by hitman hired by Joo Dan-tae. He is the biological father of Min Seol-ah and Joo Seok-kyung.
  • Han Seung-soo as Orphanage Director Min Hyung-sik (Ep. 3, 5)
  • Kim Byung-hyun as Joo Dan-tae's best friend pitcher (Ep. 12)[33]
  • Ki Eun-se as Journalist Kim Jung-min (Ep. 20-21)[34]
  • Kim Sa-kwon as Detective in charge of Oh Yoon-hee's investigation (Ep. 20-21)[35]

Season 2

An actor hired by Dan-tae to act as an detective.
A real estate agent well-versed with the upcoming redevelopment of Cheonjin District.
A politician and boyfriend of Na Ae-kyo.



The production cost of this series is 32.7 billion won, 670 million won per episode (approximate).[81] The series started its planning and preparation in September 2019.[82][user-generated source]

The first season was extended by one episode to enable the series to end on a Tuesday.[83]

On November 24, 2020, the series was officially renewed for a second and third season of twelve episodes each. It was also announced that the final seasons would air on the Friday–Saturday time slot compared to the first season previously aired on Monday–Tuesday time slot.[84]

On July 22, 2021, it was announced that the third season was extended by two episode with the final episode of the series planned for September 10, 2021.[85]


Eugene was cast in one of the lead roles, consequently returning to the small screen after a five-year hiatus.[8] Casting for the series started in December 2019,[86] and finalized in January 2020.[87] Due to scheduling conflicts, Shin Sung-rok left the cast in February.[88] Originally scheduled to take place in February 2020, the first script reading was pushed back to March due to COVID-19 pandemic.[89]Um Ki-joon joined the cast in April.[90]


Filming was halted on November 24, 2020 as one of the supporting actors was tested positive for COVID-19. The next day, it was reported that Um Ki-joon, Park Eun-seok and Bong Tae-gyu tested negative for COVID-19.[91]


The prelude teaser was released by Seoul Broadcasting System on September 22, 2020.[92] The teaser was termed as "[Mood teaser] a brilliant bloody prelude".[93][94] The first season premiered on October 26, 2020 on SBS TV and airs every Monday and Tuesday at 22:00 KST.[95] The second season premiered on February 19, 2021 and airs every Friday and Saturday at 22:00 KST.[96] The third season premiered on June 4, 2021 and airs every Friday at 22:00 KST.[97]

Original soundtrack[edit]

Season 1[edit]

Original soundtrack for Season 1

(Original Television Soundtrack)
ReleasedFebruary 3, 2021
2."Crown"Ha Jin3:03
3."Desire"Han Seung-hee4:12
4."You left to me (Feat. O'z Mood)" (내게 남은 그대 (Feat. 오즈무드))18Again, O'z Mood3:21
6."Penthouse" (펜트하우스)Kim Jun-seok3:06
7."A Blinded Person By Greed" (탐욕에 눈이 먼 자)Jung Sae-rin2:45
8."Time To Reveal The Truth" (진실을 밝힐 시간)Joo In-ro3:35
9."A Place Dizzyingly High And Distant" (아찔하게 높고 아득하게 먼 그 곳)Kim Jun-seok3:18
10."Their Own World" (그들만의 세상)Lee Yun-ji4:23
11."Heart Filled With Tears" (눈물로 채워진 심장)Jung Sae-rin3:39
12."Schadenfreude" (샤덴프로이데)Kim Hyun-do3:34
13."Evil's Victory" (악의 승리)Joo In-ro3:19
14."Where Is The Truth?" (무뎌진 진실은 어디에)Jung Sae-rin2:37
15."Everything I Wanted To have" (내가 가지고 싶었던 모든 것)Yoo So-hyun2:23
16."Preparation For Revenge" (복수를 위한 준비)Hong Eun-ji3:53
17."The Beginning Of Obsession" (집착의 시작)Jeong Hye-bin2:33
18."Another Class" (클래스가 다른 아이들)Kang Mi-mi3:00
19."I Promise To Protect You Forever" (지켜줄게요, 영원히)Jung Sae-rin2:55
20."Mama Boy" (마마보이)Shin You-jin3:07
21."Hera Pride" (헤라 부심)Jang Eu-rye2:17
22."I'm Not A Criminal" (저는 범인이 아니에요)No Yoo-rim2:49
23."Unfair Death" (억울한 죽음)Shin You-jin3:47
24."Non-Smiling People Although Having Taken Everything" (빼앗고도 웃지 못하는 사람들)Jung Sae-rin2:44
25."Just The Beginning" (시작에 불과해)Kim Jun-seok3:23
26."Dangerous Revenge" (위험한 복수)Jang Eu-rye2:47
27."A Secret Story" (은밀한 이야기)Lee Yun-ji4:21
28."Bloody Hera Palace" (핏빛 헤라팰리스)Kim Hyun-do3:05
29."I Know What You've Done" (네가 한 짓을 알고 있다)Kim Do-eun2:41
30."Desperate Maternal Love" (처절한 모성애)Kim Do-eun3:29
Total length:97:27

Season 2[edit]

Singles for Season 2 (Part 1–3)

Part 1
1."Repeatedly" (되풀이)Im Chang-jung
  • Han Kyung-soo (ARTMATIC)
  • Lee Do-hyung (Lohi)
  • bigguyrobin
Im Chang-jung3:37
2."Repeatedly" (Inst.) 
  • Han Kyung-soo (ARTMATIC)
  • Lee Do-hyung (Lohi)
  • bigguyrobin
Total length:7:14
Part 2
1."This Is What I Am" (이게 바로 나야)Im Chang-jungIm Chang-jung4:11
2."This Is What I Am" (Inst.)  4:11
Total length:8:22
Part 3
1."The morass" (늪)
  • E-Race
  • Choi Woo-seok
  • Baek Moo-hyun
Lee Ye-joon3:16
2."The morass" (Inst.) 
  • E-Race
  • Choi Woo-seok
  • Baek Moo-hyun
Total length:6:32

Season 2 and 3 Score Album[edit]

Score album for Season 2 and 3

Penthouse 2&3 Score Album
(Original Television Soundtrack)
ReleasedJune 4, 2021 (2021-06-04)
1."A Bright Moment That Seems Eternal" (영원한 듯 찬란한 순간)Kim Jun-seok3:25
2."Prelude of Counterattack" (반격의 서막)Jung Sae-rin3:06
3."Revenge From Now On" (복수는 이제부터다)Kim Hyun-do3:33
4."An Endless Desire" (끝을 모르는 욕망)Lee Yoon-ji3:33
5."Public Wicked" (공공의 악인)Joo In-ro2:31
6."A Person Who Has Lost Everything But Can't Cry" (빼앗기고도 울지 못하는 사람)Jung Sae-rin4:54
7."The Two Faces of Janus" (야누스의 두 얼굴)Jang Yoo-rye3:02
8."The Villainess" (악녀)No Yoo-rim2:44
9."Confusing Memories" (혼란스러운 기억)Shin Yoo-jin2:29
10."Where You Have To Die To Get Out" (죽어야만 나갈 수 있는 곳)Hong Eun-ji4:11
11."The Hidden Truth Of The Day" (숨겨진 그 날의 진실)Jung Hye-bin2:51
12."The Reason I Live" (내가 살아가는 이유)Jung Hye-bin3:21
13."The Poor Women" (가난한 모녀)No Yoo-rim3:05
14."Little Hera Club" (리틀 헤라클럽)Kim Do-eun3:16
15."Truth And False" (진실과 거짓)No Yoo-rim2:37
16."Business Partner" (사업 파트너)No Yoo-rim3:04
17."Happiness for Misery" (불행을 위한 행복)Kim Hyun-do3:45
18."Inferiority Complex" (그거 자격지심이야)Hong Eun-ji2:33
19."Something That Happens Up There" (그곳에서 벌어지고 있는 일)Jang Yoo-rye2:30
20."Quite War" (조용한 전쟁)Kang Mi-mi2:58
21."Suspicions" (의혹)Lee Yoon-ji1:40
22."Murder Plan" (살인계획)No Yoo-rim2:50
23."Blind Madness" (눈이 먼 광기)Yoo So-hyun2:50
24."A Fallen Heart" (타락한 마음)Shin Yoo-jin3:01
25."Tight Tension" (팽팽한 긴장)Kim Hyun-do2:55
26."Evil Trio" (악 트리오)Jang Yoo-rye3:07
27."Operation Proceeds Smoothly" (순조로운 작전 진행)Yoo So-hyun2:49
28."Lost Self" (잃어버린 자아)Kim Hyun-do2:15
29."An Ominous Premonition" (불길한 예감)Jeong Hye-bin2:23
30."A Vulgar Conspiracy" (저급한 음모)Hong Eun-ji4:22
31."The Struggle To Achieve The Goal" (목표를 쟁취하기 위한 기 싸움)Yoo So-hyun2:36
32."Woman Who Desires" (욕망하는 여자)Kang Mi-mi2:47
33."Mr. Koo And Logan Lee" (구호동과 로건리)No Yoo-rim3:42
Total length:100:45

Season 3[edit]

Singles for Season 3

Part 1
1."Goodbye"SNNNYSNNNYXIA (Junsu)3:41
2."Goodbye" (Inst.) SNNNY 3:41
Total length:7:22
Part 2
1."Let me be"
  • Lee Ha-jin
  • Lee Dong-eun (Psycho Tension)
Safira.KBaek Ji-young4:27
2."Let me be" (Inst.) Safira.K 4:27
Total length:8:55


Commercial performance[edit]

Season 1

According to the Good Data Corporation which measures drama popularity according to media trends, The Penthouse: War in Life topped the list with 27.82% surge in media mention in the second week of December.[112] In the following week it led with a 35% surge in media mentions.[113]

Season 2

In the last week of February 2021, The Penthouse: War in Life season 2 was placed first with 46.24% overall mention in media, as per Good Data Corporation.[114]


The Penthouse broadcaster SBS TV, aired a special episode on January 12, 2021, featuring the main cast. Broadcast in talk show format, it was hosted by entertainers Shin Dong-yup and Jang Do-yeon, while MC Jae Jae talked with the six actors that played the teenage characters. Aired as Penthouse Hidden Room - Hidden Story the special recorded an average 9.3% nationwide audience share according to Nielsen for its two parts. The special also drew attention due to the trailer release for second season.[115][116] The special episode for second season was aired on April 3, 2021 with the episode recording an average 8.1% nationwide audience sharing according to Nielsen for its two parts.[117][118]

Audience viewership[edit]

The Penthouse: War in Life : South Korea viewers per episode (millions)
SeasonEpisode numberAverage
Source: Audience measurement performed nationwide by Nielsen Korea.[119][120][121]
Average TV viewership ratings (season 1)
Ep.Part Original broadcast date Average audience share
Nielsen Korea[119]TNmS[122]
Nationwide SeoulNationwide
1 1 October 26, 2020 6.7%(15th)8.2%(8th)5.2%(18th)
2 9.2% (5th)10.5% (5th)6.8% (11th)
3 9.1% (6th)6.5% (13th)
2 1 October 27, 2020 8.2% (7th)9.4% (5th)6.0% (13th)
2 9.8% (6th)11.2% (4th)7.0% (12th)
3 10.1% (4th)11.6% (3rd)7.4% (8th)
3 1 November 2, 2020 8.0% (9th)8.6% (7th)6.7% (12th)
2 11.4% (3rd)12.3% (2nd)9.8% (6th)
4 1 November 3, 2020 10.8% (5th)12.0% (4th)7.8% (7th)
2 13.9% (3rd)15.1% (2nd)10.3% (5th)
5 1 November 9, 2020 9.6% (6th)10.8% (5th)8.4% (9th)
2 12.9% (4th)14.2% (2nd)11.0% (5th)
6 1 November 10, 2020 10.3% (5th)11.3% (3rd)9.2% (6th)
2 14.5% (2nd)16.1% (1st)12.6% (2nd)
7 1 November 16, 2020 10.4% (6th)11.4% (5th)10% (7th)
2 14.5% (3rd)15.9% (1st)12.8% (4th)
dagger8 1 November 23, 2020 11.1% (5th)11.8% (5th)10.8% (5th)
2 15.5% (3rd)16.5% (2nd)13.7% (3rd)
9 1 November 24, 2020 12.2% (3rd)13.1% (3rd)11.2% (3rd)
2 16.0% (2nd)17.4% (1st)14.1% (2nd)
10 1 November 30, 2020 13.2% (5th)14.6% (4th)12.3% (5th)
2 16.9% (3rd)18.8% (1st)15.7% (3rd)
11 1 December 1, 2020 14.7% (4th)16.0% (3rd)11.4% (4th)
2 19.6% (1st)21.2% (1st)13.3% (3rd)
12 1 December 7, 2020 16.3% (4th)17.9% (2nd)14.3% (4th)
2 19.9% (1st)21.5% (1st)16.1% (3rd)
13 1 December 8, 2020 17.6% (3rd)19.2% (2nd)15.5% (4th)
2 22.1% (1st)23.9% (1st)18.9% (2nd)
14 1 December 14, 2020 17.5% (4th)19.5% (2nd)16.6% (4th)
2 22.0% (1st)23.9% (1st)19.5% (2nd)
15 1 December 15, 2020 19.6% (2nd)20.8% (2nd)16.9% (4th)
2 23.3% (1st)25.0% (1st)20.8% (1st)
16 1 December 21, 2020 19.1% (3rd)20.2% (2nd)17.4% (4th)
2 23.7% (1st)25.2% (1st)21.1% (1st)
17 1 December 22, 2020 19.1% (3rd)20.7% (2nd)18.4% (4th)
2 24.0% (1st)25.8% (1st)22.4% (1st)
18 1 December 28, 2020 21.0% (2nd)22.7% (2nd)18.0% (3rd)
2 23.9% (1st)25.7% (1st)20.9% (1st)
19 1 December 29, 2020 21.3% (2nd)22.3% (2nd)19.1% (4th)
2 23.5% (1st)24.7% (1st)22.4% (1st)
20 1 January 4, 2021 20.4% (3rd)21.6% (2nd)18.3% (4th)
2 23.8% (1st)25.2% (1st)22.7% (1st)
21double-dagger1 January 5, 2021 23.6% (2nd)24.8% (2nd)20.6% (4th)
2 28.8%(1st)30.5%(1st)25.4%(1st)
Average 16.4%17.7%14.2%
The Penthouse: Hidden Room – Hidden Story (Special Episode)
Part 1 January 12, 2021 9.8% (6th)11.0% (4th)N/A
Part 2 8.8% (11th)10.3% (5th)
  • The blue numbers represent the lowest ratings and the red numbers represent the highest ratings.
  • dagger Episode 8 was not broadcast on November 17, 2020 due to Korea vs. Qatar soccer broadcast. It was aired on November 23, 2020.[123]
  • double-dagger Originally scheduled to air for 20 episodes, the series was extended by one episode, due to the Korea vs. Qatar soccer broadcast, in order to finish the drama on Tuesday.[83]
Average TV viewership ratings (season 2)
Ep.Part Original broadcast date Average audience share
Nielsen Korea[120]TNmS[124]
Nationwide SeoulNationwide
1 1 February 19, 2021 16.7% (3rd)17.3% (3rd)15.1% (3rd)
2 19.1% (2nd)19.9% (1st)17.9% (2nd)
2 1 February 20, 2021 15.1%(7th)15.6%(5th)13.8%(7th)
2 20.4% (3rd)21.0% (3rd)18.0% (3rd)
3 1 February 26, 2021 18.9% (3rd)19.7% (2nd)17.8% (3rd)
2 22.3% (1st)22.8% (1st)20.6% (1st)
4 1 February 27, 2021 18.8% (4th)20.3% (4th)17.7% (4th)
2 24.0% (2nd)26.1% (2nd)22.8% (2nd)
5 1 March 5, 2021 20.9% (3rd)22.5% (2nd)18.1% (3rd)
2 24.4% (1st)25.5% (1st)21.3% (2nd)
6 1 March 6, 2021 22.4% (4th)22.8% (4th)20.4% (4th)
2 26.9% (2nd)27.5% (2nd)24.3% (2nd)
7 1 March 12, 2021 19.4% (3rd)20.4% (2nd)18.8% (3rd)
2 23.5% (1st)24.3% (1st)22.1% (1st)
8 1 March 13, 2021 19.9% (4th)21.6% (3rd)19.2% (3rd)
2 24.8% (1st)26.1% (1st)23.5% (1st)
9 1 March 19, 2021 20.8% (3rd)22.1% (2nd)19.4% (3rd)
2 23.6% (1st)24.7% (1st)21.5% (2nd)
10 1 March 20, 2021 20.3% (4th)21.2% (3rd)18.9% (4th)
2 26.6% (1st)27.0% (1st)24.1% (1st)
11 1 March 26, 2021 21.5% (2nd)22.4% (2nd)20.7% (3rd)
2 25.2% (1st)26.3% (1st)24.1% (1st)
12 1 March 27, 2021 22.9% (3rd)24.5% (3rd)21.8% (3rd)
2 29.2%(1st)30.6%(1st)26.6%(1st)
13 1 April 2, 2021 21.5% (3rd)21.9% (3rd)20.7% (3rd)
2 25.2% (2nd)23.4% (2nd)
3 25.8% (1st)26.0% (1st)24.2% (1st)
Average 22.2%23.2%20.6%
The Penthouse 2: Hidden Room – Unfinished Story (Special Episode)
Part 1 April 3, 2021 6.5% (13th)7.6% (8th)N/A
Part 2 9.8% (3rd)10.6% (3rd)
The blue numbers represent the lowest ratings and the red numbers represent the highest ratings.
Average TV viewership ratings (season 3)
Ep.Part Original broadcast date Average audience share
Nielsen Korea[121]TNmS[125]
Nationwide SeoulNationwide
1 1 June 4, 2021 16.9% (3rd)17.6% (3rd)15.6% (3rd)
2 19.5%(1st)21.0%(1st)16.8% (1st)
3 19.1% (2nd)20.2% (2nd)15.3% (4th)
2 1 June 11, 2021 15.2% (4th)15.8% (3rd)13.5% (5th)
2 17.5% (1st)18.4% (2nd)15.1% (4th)
3 18.5% (1st)15.1% (3rd)
3 1 June 18, 2021 14.4%(5th)15.4%(3rd)12.9%(5th)
2 16.3% (2nd)17.2% (2nd)14.4% (4th)
3 17.5% (1st)18.6% (1st)15.8% (1st)
4 1 June 25, 2021 14.9% (5th)15.4% (3rd)13.5% (5th)
2 17.0% (2nd)17.9% (1st)15.3% (3rd)
3 17.1% (1st)15.7% (2nd)
5 July 2, 2021 16.5% (1st)17.4% (1st)15.0% (2nd)
6 July 9, 2021 16.7% (1st)15.5% (1st)
7 July 16, 2021 17.5% (1st)18.7% (1st)
dagger8 July 30, 2021 15.7% (1st)16.3% (1st)14.8% (1st)
9 August 6, 2021 15.5% (1st)16.9% (1st)14.7% (1st)
10 August 13, 2021 18.8% (1st)19.4% (1st)17.8%(1st)
11 August 20, 2021 18.4% (1st)18.2% (1st)
12 August 27, 2021 17.5% (1st)18.4% (1st)15.5% (2nd)
13double-daggerSeptember 3, 2021 17.9% (1st)18.7% (1st)16.0% (2nd)
14double-daggerSeptember 10, 2021 19.1% (1st)19.4% (1st)N/A
Average 17.1%17.9%15.65%
The Penthouse 3: Hidden Room – The Beginning of the End (Special Episode)
Part 1 June 2, 2021 N/A N/A N/A
Part 2 4.1% (20th)
The Penthouse 3: Hidden Room – Record of 540 Days Filming (Special Episode)
September 18, 2021 N/A
  • The blue numbers represent the lowest ratings and the red numbers represent the highest ratings.
  • dagger Episode 8 will not be aired on July 23, 2021 due to 2020 Summer Olympics Opening Ceremony broadcast. It will aired on July 30, 2021.[126]
  • double-dagger Originally scheduled to air for 12 episodes, the series was extended by two episodes.[127]

Awards and nominations[edit]


  1. ^"Penthouse [Title in the URL]". SBS. Archived from the original on January 13, 2021. Retrieved October 27, 2020.
  2. ^[펜트하우스] 무드티저 '2020 김순옥 작가 신작, 화려한 핏빛 서막이 오르다 / The Penthouse Teaser. YouTube. SBS Now. Retrieved October 27, 2020.
  3. ^채성오. "[오~컬쳐]한국 드라마, 회당 제작비 '7억원' 시대 맞이했다". n.news.naver.com (in Korean). Retrieved August 27, 2021.
  4. ^머니투데이 (January 6, 2021). "초록뱀, '펜트하우스'부터 BTS·김수현 신작까지 "사상 최대 매출 노린다" - 머니투데이". news.mt.co.kr (in Korean). Retrieved August 27, 2021.
  5. ^"국내 UHD 프로그램 SBS". UHD Korea. Archived from the original on March 14, 2021. Retrieved March 14, 2021.
  6. ^"지상파 UHD 방송이란". UHD Korea. Archived from the original on December 2, 2020. Retrieved March 14, 2021.
  7. ^Lim, Jang-won (October 22, 2020). "SBS drama 'The Penthouse: War in Life' to show row over education, real estate". The Korea Times. Archived from the original on October 26, 2020. Retrieved October 27, 2020.
  8. ^ ab"유진, 5년 만에 드라마 복귀… SBS '펜트하우스' 출연" [Eugene returns to the drama after 5 years... Appeared in SBS'Penthouse']. 머니S. September 6, 2020. Archived from the original on October 5, 2020. Retrieved September 27, 2020.
  9. ^"Lee Ji-ah, Kim So-yeon and Eugene to Star in "Penthouse: War In Life"". HanCinema. Archived from the original on October 2, 2020. Retrieved September 27, 2020.
  10. ^"[Cast Update] Cast Updated for the Upcoming Korean Drama "The Penthouse"". HanCinema. February 10, 2020. Archived from the original on May 1, 2021. Retrieved May 1, 2021.
  11. ^"스카이데일리, 김순옥 작가 새 드라마 '펜트하우스' SBS월화극 편성 확정" [Kim Soon-ok's new drama'Penthouse' SBS Moonhwageuk confirmed]. Skye Daily. Archived from the original on January 13, 2021. Retrieved September 27, 2020.
  12. ^기자, 하나영 (September 8, 2020). "진지희, SBS 새 월화드라마 '펜트하우스' 출연…신은경과 모녀 호흡" [Jin Ji-hee appeared on SBS's new monthly drama'Penthouse'... Shin Eun-kyung and mother-daughter breath]. Digital ChoSun. Archived from the original on January 13, 2021. Retrieved September 28, 2020.
  13. ^Park, Hyun-sook (September 2, 2020). "'펜트하우스' 김순옥 작가×주동민 감독, 집값·교육 1번지에서 벌어지는 자식을 위한 여자들의 연대와 복수!" ['Penthouse' writer Kim Soon-ok x director Joo Dong-min, women's solidarity and revenge for their children at No. 1 house price and education!]. Sports Khan. Archived from the original on January 13, 2021. Retrieved September 28, 2020.
  14. ^"Penthouse: War In Life (Korean Drama - 2020) - 펜트하우스". HanCinema. Archived from the original on October 2, 2020. Retrieved October 2, 2020.
  15. ^[1차티저]대한민국을 뒤흔들 김순옥표 부동산×교육 서스펜스! '펜트하우스'|펜트하우스(penthouse)|SBS DRAMA. SBS DRAMA. YouTube. September 28, 2020.
  16. ^[최초공개 티저] 복수는 아직 시작되지 않았다 '펜트하우스2'_ 2.19 첫방송 | 펜트하우스2(Penthouse2) | SBS DRAMA. SBS Drama. YouTube. January 12, 2021. Retrieved January 13, 2021.
  17. ^[선공개] 김소연, 그녀에게 조여오는 어둠 속 발자국은 누구!? | 펜트하우스2(Penthouse2) | SBS DRAMA. SBS Drama. YouTube. January 12, 2021. Retrieved January 13, 2021.
  18. ^[티저] "심수련이 죽게 될 거야!" '펜트하우스3' 마지막 전쟁의 시작!. YouTube. SBS Catch. May 27, 2021. Retrieved May 27, 2021.
  19. ^"January 5, 2021 Nationwide Cable Ratings". AGB Nielsen Media Research (in Korean). January 5, 2021. Archived from the original on January 10, 2021. Retrieved May 29, 2021.
  20. ^Kim So-yeon (January 6, 2021). "'펜트하우스' 결말, 이렇게? 이지아·유진 생존 여부 시즌2 기약 [종합]" ['Penthouse' ending, like this? Jia Lee and Eugene will survive season 2 [Comprehensive]]. 10 Asia. Archived from the original on January 10, 2021. Retrieved January 6, 2021.
  21. ^"April 2, 2021 Nationwide Cable Ratings". AGB Nielsen Media Research (in Korean). April 2, 2021. Archived from the original on April 3, 2021. Retrieved May 29, 2021.
  22. ^Kim Hye-young (April 3, 2021). "'펜트하우스2' 최종회 시청률 26.5% 돌파… 시즌3 기대감 폭발" ['Penthouse 2'last episode exceeded 26.5% ratings Season 3 Expectations Explosion]. IMBC. Archived from the original on April 3, 2021. Retrieved April 3, 2021.
  23. ^"September 10, 2021 Nationwide Cable Ratings". AGB Nielsen Media Research (in Korean). September 10, 2021. Archived from the original on September 14, 2021. Retrieved September 11, 2021.
  24. ^"Season 1 official cast list". SBS (in Korean). Archived from the original on March 30, 2021. Retrieved March 29, 2021.
  25. ^Season 2 cast
    • Kim Soo-jin (January 5, 2021). "이지아 김소연 유진 엄기준, '펜트하우스' 시즌1 종영소감". MT Star News (in Korean). Archived from the original on January 7, 2021. Retrieved January 6, 2021.
    • Lee Se-hyun (January 6, 2021). "'펜트하우스' 박은석, 시즌2에도 강렬 존재감 예고". Kyunghyang (in Korean). Archived from the original on January 8, 2021. Retrieved January 6, 2021.
    • Ji Seung-hoon (January 5, 2021). "'펜트하우스' 한지현 "펜트하우스 만난 건 큰 행운" 종영 소감". YTN (in Korean). Archived from the original on January 7, 2021. Retrieved January 6, 2021.
    • Ji Seung-hoon (January 5, 2021). "'펜트하우스' 최예빈 "매회, 본방으로 모니터...많이 배웠던 시간" 종영 소감". YTN (in Korean). Archived from the original on January 8, 2021. Retrieved January 6, 2021.
    • Jang Su-jeong (January 6, 2021). "'펜트하우스' 김현수 "시즌2에선 새로운 배로나 보여주고파" [인터뷰M]". iMBC (in Korean). Archived from the original on January 7, 2021. Retrieved January 6, 2021.
    • Kim Seung-hyun (January 6, 2021). "'펜트하우스' 진지희 "시즌2? 제니의 또다른 매력 보여드릴 것"". YTN (in Korean). Archived from the original on January 7, 2021. Retrieved January 6, 2021.
    • "Official cast season 2". SBS. Archived from the original on March 12, 2021. Retrieved March 25, 2021.
    • Tae Yuna (January 6, 2021). "'펜트하우스' 하도권, 시즌2 출연한다…"쉽지 않은 도전"". TenAsia (in Korean). Archived from the original on January 7, 2021. Retrieved January 6, 2021.
  26. ^Season 3 cast
  27. ^Jeong Ji-won (September 8, 2020). "진지희, '펜트하우스' 출연 확정…김순옥 작가 만난다(공식)". Joy News 24 (in Korean). Archived from the original on October 25, 2020. Retrieved March 30, 2021.
  28. ^Lee Ho-young (March 15, 2021). "[단독] 박호산, '펜트하우스2' 유동필役…신은경 호흡". imbc (in Korean). Archived from the original on March 15, 2021. Retrieved March 15, 2021.
  29. ^ abc
Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Penthouse:_War_in_Life

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Lost (South Korean TV series)

2021 South Korean television series

Lost (Korean: 인간실격; RR: Ingansilgyeok; lit. Human Disqualification) is an ongoing South Korean television series starring Jeon Do-yeon and Ryu Jun-yeol. Labelled as "JTBC's Tenth Anniversary Special Project", it premiered on September 4, 2021 and airs every Saturday and Sunday at 22:30 (KST).[4][5] It is also available for streaming on iQIYI.[6]


It tells the story of ordinary people who have worked hard all their lives to see the spotlight, but suddenly realize that "nothing has happened" in the middle of the downhill road of life.[4]



A ghostwriter who wants to write an original work in her own name. She has tried her best in life, but suddenly encounters a failure and loses reason to live.[7]
A man facing the end of his youth who is afraid of "being nothing". He grew up poor and dreams to become rich. He runs a service company that organizes people to take on different roles required by clients.[7][8]
Bu-jeong's husband who is a food store management team leader in a department store.[4][9]
Jung-soo's first love.[10]


People around Bu-jeong[edit]

People around Kang-jae[edit]



Lost is the first-ever television project of film directorHur Jin-ho.[18] It also marks lead stars Jeon Do-yeon and Ryu Jun-yeol's small screen comeback after five years.[19]

It was reported that the first script reading of the cast was held on January 6, 2021.[19]


Lost : South Korea viewers per episode (thousands)
SeasonEpisode numberAverage
Source: Audience measurement performed nationwide by Nielsen Korea[20]
Ep.Original broadcast date Average audience share
(Nielsen Korea)[20][21]
Nationwide Seoul
1 September 4, 2021 4.191%(3rd)4.071%(2nd)
2 September 5, 2021 3.752% (2nd)4.023% (2nd)
3 September 11, 2021 3.308% (3rd)3.531% (3rd)
4 September 12, 2021 2.784% (7th)3.472%(3rd)
5 September 18, 2021 1.696% N/A
6 September 19, 2021 2.269% (9th)2.729% (4th)
7 September 25, 2021 1.356% N/A
8 September 26, 2021 2.101% 2.605%(9th)
9 October 2, 2021 1.168% N/A
10 October 3, 2021 1.904% N/A
11 October 9, 2021 1.052%N/A
12 October 10, 2021 1.848% N/A
13 October 16, 2021
14 October 17, 2021
15 October 23, 2021
16 October 24, 2021
  • In the table above, the blue numbers represent the lowest ratings and the red numbers represent the highest ratings.
  • This drama airs on a cable channel/pay TV which normally has a relatively smaller audience compared to free-to-air TV/public broadcasters (KBS, SBS, MBC and EBS).


  1. ^Lee Jae-lim. "Main roles cast for 'Disqualified as a Human'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 12, 2021.
  2. ^"No Longer Human". HanCinema. Archived from the original on July 2, 2021. Retrieved July 13, 2021.
  3. ^ abcdJang Min-soo. "전도연X류준열, '인간실격' 멜로호흡...허진호 감독 첫 드라마 (공식)". Single List (in Korean). Retrieved July 12, 2021.
  4. ^ abcdKim Bo-ra. "'인간실격' 전도연x류준열, 2021 하반기 첫 방송[공식]". Naver (in Korean). OSEN. Retrieved July 12, 2021.
  5. ^Moon Ji-yeon. "'인간실격' 전도연·류준열 캐릭터 포스터 공개.."진가 확인"". Naver (in Korean). Sports Chosun. Retrieved August 4, 2021.
  6. ^"Lost". iQIYI. Retrieved July 30, 2021.
  7. ^ abKim Ye-eun. "전도연X류준열, JTBC '인간실격'으로 안방 컴백 [공식입장]". Naver (in Korean). Xports News. Retrieved July 12, 2021.
  8. ^Lim Jang-won. "Jeon Do-yeon, Ryu Jun-yeol to star in JTBC's 'Disqualified as a Human'". The Korea Herald. Retrieved July 12, 2021.
  9. ^Ahn Ha-na. "박병은, '인간실격' 출연...전도연-류준열과 호흡". Naver (in Korean). MBN. Retrieved July 12, 2021.
  10. ^"Kim Hyo-jin to Star in "No Longer Human"". HanCinema. Star News. Retrieved July 12, 2021.
  11. ^Han Jung-won (April 21, 2021). "'인간실격' 측 "박인환 출연" 전도연X류준열 만난다(공식)". Naver (in Korean). Newsen. Retrieved August 25, 2021.
  12. ^"Park Ji-young Cast for JTBC's "No Longer Human"". HanCinema. MoneyS. Retrieved July 12, 2021.
  13. ^Kim Soo-jin. "유수빈, 드라마 '인간실격' 출연 [공식]". Naver (in Korean). Star News. Retrieved July 12, 2021.
  14. ^ abMoon Ji-yeon. "'인간실격' 류준열·손나은·유수빈, 아슬아슬한 청춘 민낯". Naver (in Korean). Sports Chosun. Retrieved August 26, 2021.
  15. ^Jung Ah-hyun. "조은지, JTBC '인간실격' 합류···전도연·류준열과 호흡". Naver (in Korean). SE Daily. Retrieved July 12, 2021.
  16. ^Hong Seung-han. "신예 나현우, JTBC '인간실격' 캐스팅[공식]". Naver (in Korean). Sports Seoul. Retrieved July 12, 2021.
  17. ^Jo Yeon-kyung. "강형석 '인간실격' 합류…박병은·손나은과 호흡[공식]". Naver (in Korean). Ilgan Sports. Retrieved July 18, 2021.
  18. ^"Jeon Do-yeon and Ryu Jun-yeol in "No Longer Human"". HanCinema. Yonhap News. Retrieved July 12, 2021.
  19. ^ ab"Jeon Do-yeon and Ryu Jun-yeol in "No Longer Human"". HanCinema. Joy News 24. Retrieved July 12, 2021.
  20. ^ ab"Nielsen Korea Cable Daily -TOP 10 LIST FOR TV PROGRAMS". Nielsen Korea. Retrieved September 13, 2021.
  21. ^"인간실격: 시청률" [Lost: ratings]. Naver. Retrieved September 13, 2021.

External links[edit]

Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lost_(South_Korean_TV_series)

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