Neo human evolution

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Theodosius Grygorovych Dobzhansky was a prominent geneticist and evolutionary biologist, and a central figure in the field of evolutionary biology for his work in shaping the unifying modern evolutionary synthesis.Antonio Damasio's research in neuroscience has shown that emotions play a central role in social cognition and decision-making. His work has had a major influence on current understanding of the neural systems, which underlie memory, language, consciousness. Listen to his TED talk about the quest to understand consciousness.The Big Bang theory is an effort to explain what happened at the very beginning of our universe.Evolution is the change in the inherited characteristics of biological populations over successive generations. Evolutionary processes give rise to diversity at every level of biological organisation, including species, individual organisms and molecules such as DNA and proteins.The Human Genome Project (HGP) was one of the great feats of exploration in history — an international research effort to sequence and map all of the genes - together known as the genome - of members of our species, Homo sapiens. Completed in April , the HGP gave us the ability, for the first time, to read nature's complete genetic blueprint for building a human being.Neoevolutionism is a social theory that tries to explain the evolution of societies by drawing on Charles Darwin's theory of evolution. Neoevolutionism is concerned with long-term, directional, evolutionary social change and with the regular patterns of development that may be seen in unrelated, widely separated cultures.Frances Arnold is an internationally recognized American scientist and engineer. She pioneered methods of directed evolution to create useful biological systems, including enzymes, metabolic pathways, genetic regulatory circuits, and organisms.Watch the Huffington Post video about 'Directed Evolution' pioneer Frances Arnold, as she opens up about Sustainable Biofuels.

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Management models and theories associated with motivation, leadership and change management, and their application to practical situations and problems

This section covers:

Classical Management Theory

Here we focus on three well-known early writers on management:

Henri Fayol
FW Taylor
Max Weber

See also Section 5a Personal management skills (e.g. Managing: time, stress, difficult people, meetings) for more references to Fayol, Taylor and Weber.

Definition of management:

Management takes place within a structured organisational setting with prescribed roles. It is directed towards the achievement of aims and objectives through influencing the efforts of others.

Classical management theory

  • Emphasis on structure
  • Prescriptive about 'what is good for the firm'
  • Practical manager (except Weber, sociologist)

Henri Fayol ( - ), France

1.Division of work

Reduces the span of attention or effort for any one person or group. Develops practice and familiarity

2. Authority

The right to give an order. Should not be considered without reference to responsibility

3. Discipline

Outward marks of respect in accordance with formal or informal agreements between firm and its employees

4. Unity of command

One man superior

5. Unity of direction

One head and one plan for a group of activities with the same objective

6. Subordination of individual interests to the general interest

The interests of one individual or one group should not prevail over the general good. This is a difficult area of management

7. Remuneration

Pay should be fair to both the employee and the firm

8. Centralisation

Is always present to a greater or less extent, depending on the size of the company and quality of its managers

9. Scalar chain

The line of authority from top to bottom of the organisation

Order

A place for everything and everything in its place; the right man in the right place

Equity

A combination of kindliness and justice towards the employees

Stability of tenure of personnel

Employees need to be given time to settle into their jobs, even though this may be a lengthy period in the case of the managers

Initiative

Within the limits of authority and discipline, all levels of staff should be encouraged to show initiative

Esprit de corps

Harmony is a great strength to an organisation; teamwork should be encouraged

Advantages

  • Fayol was the first person to actually give a definition of management which is generally familiar today namely 'forecast and plan, to organise, to command, to co-ordinate and to control'.
  • Fayol also gave much of the basic terminology and concepts, which would be elaborated upon by future researchers, such as division of labour, scalar chain, unity of command and centralisation.

Disadvantages

  • Fayol was describing the structure of formal organisations.
  • Absence of attention to issues such as individual versus general interest, remuneration and equity suggest that Fayol saw the employer as paternalistic and by definition working in the employee's interest.
  • Fayol does mention the issues relating to the sensitivity of a patient’s needs, such as initiative and 'esprit de corps', he saw them as issues in the context of rational organisational structure and not in terms of adapting structures and changing people's behaviour to achieve the best fit between the organisation and its customers.

Many of these principles have been absorbed into modern day organisations, but they were not designed to cope with conditions of rapid change. The language used by Fayol may appear dictatorial, however if we examine Fayol’s work and concepts, it is clear that Fayol’s ‘command’ is similar to a description of what we would call empowering manager today.

F W Taylor - ( - ), USA- The Scientific Management School

Taylorism involved breaking down the components of manual tasks in manufacturing environments, timing each movement ('time and motion' studies) so that there could be a proven best way to perform each task. Thus employees could be trained to be 'first class' within their job.

This was a scientific system where every task became discrete and specialised.  Specialised services are provided in the NHS, and these management techniques could prove useful in these areas, to review productivity.

Key points about Taylor, who is credited with what we now call 'Taylorism':

  • he was in the scientific management school
  • his emphases were on efficiency and productivity
  • but he ignored many of the human aspects of employment

For the managers, scientific management required them to:

  • develop a science for each operation to replace opinion and ‘rule of thumb’
  • determine accurately from the science the correct time and methods for each job (time and motion studies)
  • set up a suitable organisation to take all responsibility from the workers except that of the actual job performance
  • select and train the workers
  • accept that management itself be governed by the science deployed for each operation and surrender its arbitrary powers over the workers, i.e. cooperate with them.

For the workers, scientific management required them to:

  • share in the prosperity of the firm by working in the correct way and receiving wage increases
  • give up their idea of time wasting and co-operate with the management in developing the science
  • accept that management would be responsible for determining what was done and how
  • agree to be trained in new methods where applicable.

The benefits arising from scientific management can be summarised as follows:

  • improving work methods brought enormous increases in productivity
  • its rational approach to the organisational work enables tasks and procedures to be measured with a considerable degree of accuracy
  • measurement of paths and processes provide useful information on which to base improvements in working methods, plant design, etc
  • it enabled employees to be paid by results and to take advantage of incentive payments
  • it stimulated management into adopting a more positive role in leadership at shop floor level
  • it contributed to major improvements in physical working conditions for employees
  • it provided the formation for modern work studies.

The drawbacks were mainly for the workers:

  • it reduced the worker's role to that of a rigid adherence to methods and procedures over which he/she had little discretion
  • it led to increased fragmentation of work due to its emphasis on divisional labour
  • it generated an economically based approach to the motivation of employees by linking pay to geared outputs
  • it put the planning and control of workplace activities exclusively in the hands of the managers
  • it ruled out any realistic bargaining about wage rates since every job was measured and rated 'scientifically'.

Therefore, in summary, while the scientific management technique has been employed to increase productivity and efficiency both in private and public services, it has also had the disadvantages of discounting many of the human aspects of employment.  Taylor’s ideas on management and workers demonstrates justice for both parties (employer and employee).Taylorism prevailed in the '30s through to the early '60s - and in many organisations considerably later than this. Peters and Waterman in the 70s/80 and Senge late '80s/early '90s led us towards what we now call 'systems thinking' where the rights and potential wider contributions of employees received considerably greater emphasis.

Max Weber ( - ), Germany

Weber described bureaucracy as the most efficient way of working.

Bureaucracy in this context is the organisational form of certain dominant characteristics such as a hierarchy of authority and a system of rules.

Bureaucracy in a sense of red tape or officialdom should not be used as these meanings are value-ridden and only emphasise very negative aspects of the original Max Weber model.

Authority is distinguished from power by Weber. Power is a unilateral thing - it enables a person to force another to behave in a certain way, whether by means of strength or by rewards. Authority, on the other hand, implies acceptance of the rules by those over whom it is to be exercised within limits agreeable to the subordinates that Weber refers to in discussing legitimate authority.

Weber presented three types of legitimate authority (also discussed in Section 5a):

Traditional authority: where acceptance of those in authority arose from tradition and custom.
Charismatic authority: where acceptance arises from loyalty to, and confidence in, the personal qualities of the ruler.
Rational-legal authority: where acceptance arises out of the office, or position, of the person in authority as bounded by the rules and procedures of the organisation.

It is the rational-legal authority form that exists in most organisations today and this is the form to which Weber ascribed the term 'bureaucracy'.

The main features of bureaucracy according to Weber were:

  • a continuous organisation or functions bounded by rules
  • that individuals functioned within the limits of the specialisation of the work, the degree of authority allocated and the rules governing the exercise of authority
  • a hierarchical structure of offices
  • appointment to offices made on the grounds of technical competence only
  • the separation of officials from the ownership of the organisation
  • the authority was vested in the official positions and not in the personalities that held these posts. Rules, decisions and actions were formulated and recorded in writing.

It is no coincidence that Weber's writings were at a time of the major industrial revolutions and the growth of large complex organisations out of the cottage industries and/or entrepreneurial businesses.

The efficiency of this rational and logistical organisation shares a considerable amount of common ground with the thinking of Fayol. In particular, features such as scalar chain, specialisation, authority and the definition of jobs which were so essential to successful management as described by Fayol, are typical of bureaucracy. There is also little doubt that Weber's ideas concerning specific spheres of competence and employment based on technical competence would have considerable appeal for Taylor's scientific managers.

Advantages

  • Appointment, promotion and authority were dependent on technical competence and reinforced by written rules and procedures of promoting those most able to manage rather than those favoured to manage. We take a lot of this for granted in the UK today. Anything else is regarded as nepotism and corruption.
  • The adoption of bureaucratic type of management systems allow organisations to grow into large complex organised systems that are focused towards formalised explicit goals.
  • It cannot be stated strongly enough that the Weber theory has the advantage of being used as a 'gold standard' on which to compare and develop other modern theories.

Disadvantages

Subsequent analysis by other researchers have identified many disadvantages:

  • Tendency for organisations to become procedure dominated rather than goal dominated.
  • Tendency for heavily formalised organisational roles to suppress initiative and flexibility of the job holders.
  • Rigid behaviour by senior managers can lead to standardised services that do not meet the needs of the client.
  • Rigid procedures and rules are demotivating for the subordinates that work in the organisations.
  • Exercise of control based on knowledge as advocated by Weber has led to the growth of 'experts' whose opinions and attitudes may frequently clash with those of the more generalised managers and supervisors.

Human Relations Theories

Elton Mayo: Hawthorne studies

Where Classical theorists were concerned with structure and mechanics of organisations, the theorists of human relations were, understandably, concerned with the human factors.

The foci of human relations theory is on motivation, group motivation and leadership.

At the centre of these foci are assumptions about relationship between employer and employee.

Schein () and Mayo ()

  • were academic, social scientists
  • their emphasis was on human behaviour within organisations
  • they stated that people's needs are decisive factors in achieving an organisation's effectiveness
  • they were descriptive and attempted to be predictive of behaviour in organisations

A 'motive' is described as a need or driving force within a person.

The process of motivation involves choosing between alternative forms of action in order to achieve some desired end or goal

Alternative forms of action of motivation depend on a manager's assumptions about his/her subordinates:

Prime Motivators

Theory

1. Rational- economic man

Self interest and maximisation of gain

Basis of Classical, especially, Taylor/Scientific theory

2. Social man

Social need, being part of a group

Basis of Mayo

3. Self actualising man

Self-fulfilment of individual

Maslow, Likert, McGregor, Argyris, Herzberg

4. Complex man

Depends on individual, group, task

'Systems approach'

Elton Mayo : Hawthorne Studies

The ground-breaking Hawthorne studies carried out in the Hawthorne plant of the Western Electric Company (USA) -

Stage 1 ( )

Study of the physical surroundings (lighting level) on productivity of workers. Control group and experimental group previously had similar productivity before study began.

Control Group = constant lighting level
Experimental Group = varied lighting level

Result
Both groups productivity increased - even when experimental group was working in dim light.

Product leader called Mayo and colleagues to explain the results.

Stage 2 ( - 29) 'Relay assembly room stage'
Still analysing effect of physical surroundings (rest, pauses, lunch break duration, length of working week) on output.

Result

Output increased even when worsening conditions

Hypothesis was now that it was the attitudes of subjects at work and not the physical conditions. This gave rise to the 'Hawthorne Effect' - employees were responding not so much to changes in the environment as to the fact they were the centre of attention - a special group.

Stage 3 ( - 30)

A Total of 20, interviews were collected with the workers on employee attitudes to working conditions, their supervision and their jobs.

Stage 4 () 'Bank winning observation room'

This time the new subjects (14 men) put in separate room for six months.

Result
Productivity restricted due to pressure from peers to adopt a slower rate to circumvent company wages incentive scheme to generally adopt own group rules and behaviour.

Advantages

  • first real attempt to undertake genuine social research in industrial setting
  • individuals cannot be treated in isolation, but function with group members
  • that individual motivation did not primarily lie in monetary or physical condition, but in need and status in a group
  • the strength of informal (as opposed to formal) groups demonstrated a behaviour of workers (formal supervisors were powerless in Stage 4)
  • it highlighted need for supervisors to be sensitive and cater for social needs of workers within the group

Disadvantages

  • from s s some doubt was cast on the increased applicability of these theories to every day working life

Neo-Human Relations Theory

This group were social psychologists who developed more complex theories:

Maslow
McGregor (Theory X and Theory Y)
Herzberg
Likert
Argyris

See also Section 5a Motivation, creativity and innovation in individuals, and their relationship to group and team dynamics for more references to Maslow, McGregor, and Herzberg.

Maslow is often-quoted still today, having developed a seminal theory of the needs of human beings. Herzberg's and McGregor's neo-human relations theories both focus on motivation and leadership, but their theories are very different.

In this group we find a particular focus on human motivation including:

  • satisfaction
  • incentive
  • intrinsic

Maslow () Heirarchy of Needs

  1. Maslow proposed a hierarchy of human needs building from basic needs at the base to higher needs at the top.

  2. Maslow made assumptions that people need to satisfy each level of need, before elevating their needs to the next higher level e.g. a hungry person's need is dominated by a need to eat (i.e survival), but not to be loved, until he/she is no longer hungry.
  3. Today the focus in most Western societies is on the elements towards the top of Maslow's hierarchy - in which work environments and 'jobs', including 'having a job' and the satisfaction or otherwise such jobs provide - have become typical features. Notably the attainment of self-esteem and, at the very top of the hierarchy, what Maslow calls 'self-actualisation' - fundamentally the synthesis of 'worth', 'contribution' and perceived 'value' of the individual in society.

Advantages

  • Managers should consider the needs and aspirations of individual staff.

Disadvantages

  • The broad assumptions in 2 above have been disproved by exceptions e.g. hungry, ill artist working in combination.

Whilst this research provides a basic framework, life is complex.

McGregor (Theory X and Theory Y)

Managers were perceived by McGregor, whose theories are still often quoted, to make two noticeably different sets of broad assumptions about their employees.

Theory X (essentially 'scientific' mgt)

Theory Y

Lazy

Like working

Avoid responsibility

Accept/seek responsibility

Therefore need control/coercion

Need space to develop imagination/ingenuity

Schein type: 'rational economic man'

Schein type: 'self-actualising man'

Advantages

  • Identifies two main types of individual for managers to consider how to motivate.

Disadvantages

  • Only presents two extremes of managerial behaviour.

Herzberg’s theory

Herzberg showed that satisfaction at work came from different factors to dissatisfaction.  Dissatisfaction was not simply the opposite of the factors which caused satisfaction.

engineers and accountants were asked to recall the times/occasions when they experienced satisfactory and unsatisfactory feeling about their jobs. Later this also involved manual and clerical staff similar results were found.  Herzberg showed two categories of findings:

Motivators - factors giving rise to satisfaction
Hygiene factors - factors giving rise to dissatisfaction

Important Motivators

Important Hygiene Factors

Achievement

Company policy and recognition

Recognition

Supervision - the technical aspects

Work itself

Salary

Responsibility

Interpersonal relations - supervision

Advancement

Working conditions

Other features include:

Motivators

Hygiene Factors

Related to content of work 

Related to context/environment of work

Promote satisfaction   

Only prevent dissatisfaction

Advantages

  • Herzberg's work led to a practical way to improve motivation, which had, up to that point, been dominated by Taylorism (salary, wages). In particular ' job enrichment' programmes mushroomed. The aim of these was to design work and work structures to contain the optimum number of motivators.
  • This approach counters the years of Taylorism, which sought to break down work into its simplest components and to remove responsibility from individuals for planning and control.

Disadvantages

  • There remain doubts about Herzberg's factors applicability to non-professional groups, despite the fact that some of his later studies involved the clerical and manual groups. The numbers in these categories though were small, and researchers still argue about the applicability of the manual and clerical group.
  • Social scientists argue about the validity of his definition of 'job satisfaction'.

Likert

Described 'new patterns of management' based on the behaviours of managers.

Four main patterns:

1. Exploitative - authoritative where power and direction come from the top down', where threats and punishment are employed, where communication is poor and teamwork is minimal. Productivity is typically mediocre.

'Rational economic man'

2. Benevolent - authoritative is similar to the above but allows some upward opportunities for consultation and some delegation. Rewards may be available as well as threats. Productivity is typically fair to good but at cost of considerable absenteeism and staff turnover.

Weaker version of 'rational - economic man'

3. Consultative - where goals are set or orders issued after discussion with subordinates, where communication is upwards and downwards and where teamwork is encouraged, at least partially. Some involvement of employees as a motivator.

'Social man'

4. Participative - this is reckoned by many to be the ideal system. Under this system, the keynote is participation, leading to commitment to the organisation's goals in a fully co-operative way. Communication is both upwards, downwards and lateral. Motivation is obtained by a variety of means. Productivity is excellent and absenteeism and turnover are low.

Self - actualising man
(see also McGregor: theory Y)

Advantages

Essentially Likert's work gives more alternatives in the spectrum between Theory X and Theory Y of McGregor

Disadvantage

  • criticised for being based more on theory than empirical practice. Therefore not widely accepted by practising managers.

Argyris

Studied the needs of people and the needs of organisation. He felt that classical models of organisation promoted 'immaturity' (see below). He felt that it was important to understand the needs of people and integrate them with needs of organisation. Only in this way, he said, can employees become co-operative rather than defensive or aggressive

Characteristics of Employee
Immaturity                                                                      Maturity

Passivity Activity
DependenceRelative independence
Behave in a few waysBehave in many ways
Erratic, shallow interestsDeeper interests
Short time perspectiveLong time perspective
Subordinate positionEqual or superior position
Lack of awareness of selfAwareness and self control

Advantages

  • Argyris is moving here towards a 'contingency approach' i.e. remedy depends on diagnosing problems first
  • He presents a spectrum rather than bipolar patterns of employees behaviour could be expected from immaturity to maturity. Certain behaviours of employees may be preferred.

Disadvantages

  • Still too centred around 'self-actualising man'. Viewed not to be applicable to production lines with manual workers, workers in sterile supplies, people manning phone helplines etc whose needs are perceived to be typically lower in Maslow's hierarchy of needs.

System Theories

Attention began to focus on organisations as 'systems' with a number of inter-related sub-systems. The 'systems approach' attempted to synthesise the classical approaches ( organisations without people') with the later human relations approaches that focused on the psychological and social aspects, emphasised human needs - almost 'people without organisations'.

Systems theory focuses on complexity and interdependence of relationships. A system is composed of regularly interacting or interdependent groups of activities/parts that form the emergent whole.

Part of systems theory, system dynamics is a method for understanding the dynamic behaviour of complex systems. The basis of the method is the recognition that the structure of any system -- the many circular, interlocking, sometimes time-delayed relationships among its components -- is often just as important in determining its behaviour as the individual components themselves.

Early systems theorists aimed at finding a general systems theory that could explain all systems in all fields of science. The term goes back to Bertalanffy’s () basic work 'General Systems Theory'. Sociologists like Niklas Luhmann () also worked towards a general systems theory. As of today, whilst no systems theory can live up to this claim, there are general system principles which are found in all systems. For example, every system is an interaction of elements manifesting as a whole. Miller and Rice () likened the commercial and industrial organisation to biological organisms.

Systems theories took much more of an holistic view of organisations, focusing on the total work organisation and the inter-relationships between structures and human behaviours producing a wide range of variables within organisations. They help us understand the interactions between individuals, groups, organisations, communities, larger social systems, and their environments and help us enhance our understanding of how human behaviour operates in a context.

A system is a part, and it is a whole, at the same time.

An example of this in the Modern NHS is care pathways for patients which will often require a range of health disciplines to work together and will often also include professionals from the local authority.

System Theory Key Terms:

Boundary - an imaginary line around system of focus. Regulates flow of energy (e.g. information, resources) into and out of the system.

Focal system - the system on which you are concentrating at any given time (e.g.: a manufacturing plant or a family).

Subsystem - a part of the focal system (e.g., in a family, it may be children or parents) sometimes referred to as 'sibling subsystem' and 'parental subsystem').

Suprasystem - is external to focal system; it is its environment. May include place of employment, school, neighbourhood, church, social service system.

Open system - Relatively open systems have a freer exchange of information and resources within the system and also allow relatively free passage of energy from and to the outside of the system.

Closed system - is more self-contained and isolated from their environment.

The business organisation is an Open System: there is continual interaction with the broader external environment of which it forms a part. The systems approach considers the organisation within its total environment and emphasises the importance of 'multiple channels of interaction'. Thus the systems approach views organisations as a whole and involves the study of the organisation in terms of the relationship between technical and social variables with the systems. Thus changes in one part, technical or social, will affect other parts and therefore the whole system.

It was Trist () and others at the Tavistock Institute of Human relations who focused in on socio-technical systems arising from their study of the effects of changing technology in the coal-mining industries in the s.

The following Timeline gives perspective to the development of Systems Theory:

  • General Systems Theory (founded by Ludwig von Bertalanffy)
  • cybernetics (W. Ross Ashby, Norbert Wiener) Mathematical theory of the communication and control of systems through regulatory feedback. Closely related: "control theory"
  • catastrophe theory (René Thom, E.C. Zeeman) Branch of mathematics that deals with bifurcations in dynamical systems, classifies phenomena characterised by sudden shifts in behavior arising from small changes in circumstances.
  • chaos theory (David Ruelle, Edward Lorenz, Mitchell Feigenbaum, Steve Smale, James A. Yorke) Mathematical theory of nonlinear dynamical systems that describes bifurcations, strange attractors, and chaotic motions.
  • complex adaptive systems (CAS) (John H. Holland, Murray Gell-Mann, Harold Morowitz, W. Brian Arthur). The "new" science of complexity which describes emergence, adaptation and self-organisation, all of which are basic system principles, was established mainly by researchers of the Santa Fe Institute (SFI). It is based on agents and computer simulations and includes multi-agent systems (MAS) which have become an important tool to study social and complex systems. CAS are still an active field of research.

Tavistock Institute of Human Relations

  • organisation is an 'open system' with environment
  • organisations are complex systems of people, task, technology
  • technological environmental factors are just as important as social/psychological

Contingency Theories

From the late s, a new approach to organisation theory was developed which became known as contingency theory. This theory argues that there is no 'one best way' to structure an organisation. An organisation will face a range of choices when determining how it should be structured, how it should be organised, how it should be managed. Successful organisations adopt structures that are an appropriate response to a number of variables, or contingencies, which influence both the needs of the organisation and how it works.

  • these theories take a comprehensive view of people in organisations
  • they recommend a diagnosis of people/ task/ technology/environment – then suggest the development of appropriate solutions

Contingency theorists including Pugh, Burns and Stalker and Laurence and Lorsch have found that three contingencies are particularly important in influencing an organisation's structure. These are:

  • its size
  • the technology it uses
  • its operating environment.

There are two significant implications of contingency theory:

  • if there is no 'one best way', then even apparently quite similar organisations, for example, two nearby colleges, may choose significantly different structures and still survive and be reasonably successful in achieving their missions
  • if different parts of the same organisation are influenced in different ways by the contingencies bearing upon them, then it may be appropriate for them to be structured differently, for example, one university department may have a functional structure, whilst another may have a matrix structure

References 

  • Bertalanffy L. von 'Problems of General Systems Theory : A New Approach to the Unity of Science' Human Biology, vol 23,no 4, December Pgs
  • Luhmann N. 'Social Systems', Frankfurt, Suhrkamp,
  • Mayo E. ‘The human problems of an industrial civilisation’ New York : Macmillan,
  • Miller E.J and Rice A.K 'Systems of Organisation', Tavistock Publications ()
  • Schein EH, Bennis WG. ‘Personal and Organisational change through Group Methods: The laboratory approach’ New York: John Wiley & Sons,
  • Trist E.L et al 'Organisational Choice', Tavistock Publications ()

                                                                           © K Enock , C Beynon

Sours: https://www.healthknowledge.org.uk/public-health-textbook/organisation-management/5c-management-change/basic-management-models
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Neo-Humanity A Global Strategy for the Evolution of Humanity in the Third Millennium

 

Declaration by the "" Strategic Social Initiative

 

Where is human evolution headed?

The challenges of modernity, the growing complexity of the world, successive crises, climate change, the torrential rate at which new technologies appear—these realities dictate the vital necessity for humanity to contemplate the near future and its evolution immediately.

We must ask ourselves a series of questions.

What does the future hold for humanity?

Where is our world headed? In what direction is all of humanity as a civilization, as a single collective intelligence and as an intelligent species—in what direction are we headed?

What paradigm, ideology, or social structure will shape the near future of humanity? What will replace post-industrial consumer society?

What will human society look like in 10, 30, 50, , years, given the breakneck pace at which modern technologies are evolving?

It’s clear that humanity is in need of a new evolutionary strategy. It will be a strategy of constant development, as in ancient times—not one of consumption, as in our era.

It is of fundamental importance that we formulate a strategy of evolutionary development. Such a strategy will make it possible to maintain balance against the backdrop of accelerating informational processes and the growing complexity of technology.

Otherwise, we will be facing a bleak picture: a limited, primitive human surrounded by an extremely complex, independently thinking, highly self-organized technological environment endowed with higher intelligence going about its own independent and incomprehensible existence. If, against the backdrop of an increasingly complex technological environment that is also increasingly independent and self-sufficient, humans do not evolve, then sooner or later that environment will displace us.

 

Development of society as a means of raising levels of self-organization, internal complexity and diversity

The development of human society as a single rational system has followed a clear path over the entire course of human history:

-         Growth in internal complexity and in the diversity of society and all its attributes (science, culture)

-         Acceleration of self-organizational processes, increased levels of order and control

-         Growth in the influence of human civilization on natural processes and on the control of nature

These developments provide grounds for believing that the torrential rate at which new technologies are appearing will lead to a no less significant increase in the level of self-organization of society and to the integration of societies into a unified, collective super intelligence, into a superbeing.

This super intelligence will quickly solve a large array of problems that are currently intractable for humanity, such as:

 

-         Providing an abundance of all consumer goods;

-         Eliminating aging, illness, and death;

-         Elimination of crime and all conflicts, including inter-ethnic and inter-governmental conflicts;

-         Elimination of all natural disasters and catastrophes.

 

The formation of such an intelligence will not limit the individuality or freedom of any single person—on the contrary, it will maximize creative development and facilitate the unlocking of boundless potential. All this will inevitably lead to the emergence of a new society—a society of immortal superpeople.

 

Neo-humanity as the future of human civilization in the third millennium 

The calculations, predictions, and reports made by leading scientists, futurologists, and analysts give all the reason to believe that in the middle of the 21st century, humanity will undergo a powerful polyfurcation comparable in its significance to the appearance of life on Earth.

As a result, in the best-case scenario, trans-national, post-industrial capitalism and the consumer society it has created will give way, at some point between the s and s, to a new form of society (we will call it neo-humanity).

This neo-humanity may become an adequate response of conscious society to the challenges, crises, risks, and threats of a new era.

Neo-humanity as an ideology, a socio-economic structure, and a new form of civilization will usher in a new era in people’s lives—the transition to a cosmic supercivilization of neo-humans.

The world’s leading scientists believe that over the next three decades, we will see intensive development of NBIC (nano-bio-info-cognitive) and GNR (genetics-nano-robotics) technologies: advanced brain-computer interfaces, anthropomorphic robot avatars controlled by one’s thoughts, symbiotic intelligence, digitization of memories, and transfer of personality to a non-protein-based carrier.

Neo-humanity will provide new meaning to people’s lives; new values and goals; things that have never existed before—that could never have existed before—and that even now seem fantastical and incredible to us.

Neo-humanity will change the physical nature of man, making him immortal, free, liberated from the boundaries of space and time.

All the previous development undergone by humankind may end up having been only preparation for this unprecedented evolutionary leap.

 

The main characteristics of neo-humanity:

-         Neo-humanity of the future, in contrast to all previous societies in history, will strive not to subjugate nature or to create, accumulate and consume material goods for the sake of deriving sensory pleasure, but toward self-actualization, toward the development of man himself;

-         It will be an enormous collective intelligence (noosphere), which will number millions and billions of leading members of the human race who will voluntarily join its ranks. It will be a complex, self-organized, open society of universal progress, evolution, and synergism. In terms of values, ideology, mentality, and economics, neo-humanity will be oriented toward development, toward moving forward, toward growth in the scale of its goals and the comprehensiveness of its projects;

-         Evolution for each individual in this society will become a transition from a rational human to a hyperrational, immortal, multibody neo-human—a cosmic creator who lives eternally in different bodies, unrestricted by the boundaries of nature. Technological and spiritual development will move in parallel. Technologies will most likely be designed to further the advancement of the vehicle carrying the personality of the immortal superhuman of the future;

-         On the societal level, evolution in this society will lead to the creation of a unified, global, collective, network-based meta-intelligence that can live anywhere in outer space.

 

Tactical goals of neo-humanity (21strd centuries):

-         First and foremost, to vanquish aging and death in the nearest future for all people and all of humanity; with that goal in mind, to master the technology of transferring human personality to an alternative vehicle (artificial body); to achieve boundless immortality, i.e. perfect the capabilities of an artificial body to the point that it can exist indefinitely (achieving independence from time);

-         To acquire the capability of free, boundless movement in space;

-         To provide everyone the opportunity to acquire multiple bodies, i.e. to distribute consciousness among multiple vehicles; to make it possible for one consciousness to live freely in and control several immortal bodies;

-         To expand our habitat to one of multiple realities, i.e. to acquire the ability to live simultaneously in several different realities with the ability to move freely among them.

 

Strategic goals of neo-humanity (23rdth centuries):

-         To control reality using one’s thoughts. To achieve complete control of external reality using one’s thoughts and will power. To acquire the capability of self-organization and the ability to organize and complicate space, creating complex unbalanced systems, entire new worlds, through will power and creative thought;

-         Cosmic expansion: the colonization by humanity of the near and deep space; boundless freedom of movement in the universe; freedom from the necessity to live only in one specific place, on planet Earth (“Earth is the cradle of humanity, but you can’t spend your whole life in the cradle.” Konstantin Tsiolkovsky);

-         Personal universe: to create a personal universe controllable by the mind for every neo-human;

-         To be able to control the course of history using one’s thoughts, to the point of completing all historical processes at the point of singularity (end of history, collapse of time).

 

A New Set of Ethics for Neo-humanity

It is utterly clear that the process of society becoming more complex and the transition to neo-humanity must be accompanied by the formulation of a new ethical paradigm for all of humanity.

The growth in humanity’s power inevitably makes it necessary for every individual to take on a new level of responsibility, given that a single neo-human will be able to wield power and capabilities currently possessed by a modern army of a large government.

Such responsibility cannot be called into being in a single instant.

And it cannot be created administratively, by order. It can only be nurtured, encouraging a person’s spiritual growth, which would awaken the higher aspects of consciousness in him: inner purity, beauty, compassion, love for all living things, harmony, living not for oneself but for others, the ability to serve for the good of society, sacrifice, devotion.

It’s also clear that such qualities cannot be imparted from without, imposed on someone, or programmed in, since every person has his own will power and the freedom to choose one or another system of values or ethics, ideology, religion, paradigm or model of thinking.

One can nurture such qualities in oneself by way of serious spiritual and ethical labor on oneself, and that means that the new society of the future, apart from the technologies, will be built on high principles of spiritual growth, on high morals and ethics.

 

Dmitry Itskov, "" Initiative

September 26,

Moscow

 

(The ideological documents of the movement are approved by the "" Initiative expert council on ideology and do not necessarily express the views of the scientists and experts doing technical work on the project.)

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