Flamethrower pen

Flamethrower pen DEFAULT

'Anti-Pervert' Flamethrowers For Sale on Taobao

A pocket-sized flamethrower capable of hurling a half-meter flame is the latest ‘anti-pervert’ tool being marketed to Chinese women on Taobao.

The device, which kind of resembles a lightsaber, sells for RMB90-300, and as many as 200 to 300 are sold each month on the site, according to Beijing Youth Daily.

While the flame can leave a decent burn, and certainly a permanent scar, its manufacturers insist that it's not a weapon but a tool of defense.

flamethrower-on-taobao.jpg

One seller claims that most people who see the fire will run away, making the 1,800-degree-Celsius flame a preventative device meant to deter an attack before it happens.

Sellers also claim that the device is safe for users, equipped with a safety lock to avoid unwanted bursts of fire. The public, however, is less convinced.

“Of course perverts are scary – but what’s even more scary are these ‘anti-pervert devices,” read one opinion piece, according to Metro.

The legality of such an item is also in question, and police have made clear that shipment of the device is “technically illegal.”

flamethrower-on-taobao-2.jpg

Bringing the flamethrower onto the metro, a hotspot for sexual predators, is also out of the question as it directly violates an array of guidelines set by the Ministry of Public Security.

The anti-pervert flamethrower is one of many devices available on Taobao for protecting against unwanted male advances. Ladies can also equip themselves with spiked and shock rings, metal batons, weaponized pens, pepper spray and secret alarms, among others.

flamethrower-on-taobao-1.jpg

Sexual harassment seems to pop up in the news on a regular basis in China. Last month a ‘magician’ used a coin trick to molest women on the streets of Chengdu and in late May, a man got caught taking ‘upskirt’ photos at a football match in Guangzhou.

[Images via Taobao]

Sours: https://www.thatsmags.com/guangzhou/post/19887/anti-pervert-flamethrower-for-sale-on-taobao

This is the ‘anti-pervert’ FLAMETHROWER pen used by Chinese women to fight off sex attackers

THIS is the flamethrower that can shoot a stream of fire half a metre long that is being sold to women in China to fend off sex attackers.

The device has been branded a must-have "anti-pervert weapon" that is small enough to fit in a woman's handbag.

 Miniature flamethrowers have gone on sale in china to help women 'fend off perverts'

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Now a new video of the blaze blasting batons in action has emerged online.

The lighter fluid fuelled weapons can be seen shooting out their flames.

Some emit small flames but others are capable of shooting fire for 50cm with temperatures of up to 1,800C.

Those shown in the video are adjustable so that users can increase or decrease the size of the flame as they see fit.

The flamethrowers sell from about £10 to over £30 - with vendor boasting to local media how they can "scald or even disfigure an attacker.”

 The devices are available on the internet for between £10 to £30

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 The blaze blast is adjustable allowing either a big or small flame to be released

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Another seller told The Beijing Youth Daily they “can leave a permanent scar, but are a legal, non-lethal tool.

"Not a weapon.”

Cops in China have warned the devices are against the law but they're still available to buy on the internet.

One website flogging the flamethrowers says: "Flames and the super high temperatures are enough to scare the bad guys away."

The Beijing Youth Daily said they had become “very popular” sexual harassment fears peak at the start of summer, with some stores selling up to 300 a month.

But there are concerns the devices could become the latest "must have" gadget in China, or that the flamethrowers could accidentally switch on while it is in a handbag.

 Women in China are being sold flamethrowers to fend off perverts

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Sours: https://www.thesun.co.uk/news/4087813/this-is-the-anti-pervert-flamethrower-pen-used-by-chinese-women-to-fight-off-sex-attackers/
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The ‘Pyro Pen’ Shoots 10-Foot Flames From the Palm of Your Hand

This 007-worthy pen was prototyped by a “Game of Thrones” special effects expert.

Meet the flame-throwing marker that proves the pen is truly mightier than the sword.

First prototyped by Game of Thronesspecial effects supervisor Jared Manley, Ellusionist’s “Pyro Pen” packs the same tech used in the company’s wrist-mounted fireball launcher into a device that looks almost identical to a Sharpie. 

Its single barrel launches flaming pieces of “flash paper”—specially-treated tissue that burns extremely quickly—up to ten feet at the push of a button.

Sounds a little dangerous, right? Ellusionist thought of that and incorporated a delayed trigger that requires three seconds of constant pressure to shoot, thus mitigating the chances of a disastrous misfire into someone’s pocket. A blue LED light indicates that the device is locked and loaded. 

One bundle of flash cotton and 10 large sheets of flash paper—enough for about 120 shots—are included in every order. It’s also recommended that buyers watch an instructional video by inventor Adam Wilber to pick up performance ideas. 

Buy the fire-breathing Pyro Pen for $80 on Ellusionist’s website. 

Tags: EllusionistFlamethrowergadgetsgearMaxim VideoPensphotosPyro Pen

Brandon Friederich

Sours: https://www.maxim.com/gear/pyro-pen-2018-12
XM42 Flamethrower Epic and Legal to Own!

Flamethrower

Ranged incendiary device designed to project a controllable stream of fire

For other uses, see Flamethrower (disambiguation).

"Flame warfare" redirects here. For the online term, see Flame war.

Japanese flamethrower (American design from World War II) Type 93.
A U.S. soldier firing a flamethrower during the Vietnam War
United States Marines demonstrating flamethrower usage (2012)

A flamethrower is a rangedincendiary device designed to project a controllable jet of fire. First deployed by the Byzantine Empire in the 7th century AD, flamethrowers saw use in modern times during World War I, and more widely in World War II as a tactical siege weapon against fortifications.

Most military flamethrowers use liquid fuel, typically either gasoline or diesel, but commercial flamethrowers are generally blowtorches using gaseous fuels such as propane; gases are safer in peacetime applications, because their flames have less mass flow rate and dissipate faster, and often are easier to extinguish when necessary.

The military use of flamethrowers is restricted through the Protocol on Incendiary Weapons.

Apart from the military applications, flamethrowers have peacetime applications where there is a need for controlled burning, such as in sugarcane harvesting and other land-management tasks. Various forms are designed for an operator to carry, while others are mounted on vehicles.

Military flamethrowers[edit]

Modern flamethrowers were first used during the trench warfare conditions of World War I and their use greatly increased in World War II. They can be vehicle-mounted, as on a tank, or man-portable.

The man-portable flamethrower consists of two elements—the backpack and the gun. The backpack element usually consists of two or three cylinders. In a two-cylinder system, one cylinder holds compressed, inert propellant gas (usually nitrogen), and the other holds flammable liquid, typically some form of petrochemical. A three-cylinder system often has two outer cylinders of flammable liquid and a central cylinder of propellant gas to maintain the balance of the soldier carrying it. The gas propels the liquid fuel out of the cylinder through a flexible pipe and then into the gun element of the flamethrower system. The gun consists of a small reservoir, a spring-loaded valve, and an ignition system; depressing a trigger opens the valve, allowing pressurized flammable liquid to flow and pass over the igniter and out of the gun nozzle. The igniter can be one of several ignition systems: A simple type is an electrically-heated wire coil; another used a small pilot flame, fueled with pressurized gas from the system.

Flamethrowers were primarily used against battlefield fortifications, bunkers, and other protected emplacements. A flamethrower projects a stream of flammable liquid, rather than flame, which allows bouncing the stream off walls and ceilings to project the fire into unseen spaces, such as inside bunkers or pillboxes. Typically, popular visual media depict the flamethrower as short-ranged and only effective for a few meters (due to the common use of propane gas as the fuel in flamethrowers in movies, for the safety of the actors). Contemporary flamethrowers can incinerate a target some 50–100 meters (160–330 ft) from the gunner; moreover, an unignited stream of flammable liquid can be fired and afterwards ignited, possibly by a lamp or other flame inside the bunker.

Flamethrowers pose many risks to the operator. The first disadvantage was the weapon's weight and length, which impairs the soldier's mobility. The weapon is limited to only a few seconds of burn time, since it uses fuel very quickly, requiring the operator to be precise and conservative. Flamethrowers using a fougasse-style explosive propellant system also have a limited number of shots. The weapon was very visible on the battlefield, which caused operators to become immediately singled out as prominent targets, especially for snipers and designated marksmen. Flamethrower operators were rarely taken prisoner, especially when their target survived an attack by the weapon; captured flamethrower users were in some cases summarily executed.[1]

The flamethrower's effective range is short in comparison with that of other battlefield weapons of similar size. To be effective, flamethrower soldiers must approach their target, risking exposure to enemy fire. Vehicular flamethrowers also have this problem; they may have considerably greater range than a man-portable flamethrower, but their range is still short compared with that of other infantry weapons.

Army War Show November 27, 1942.

The risk of a flamethrower operator being caught in the explosion of their weapon due to enemy hits on the tanks is exaggerated in films.[2] However, there are cases where the pressure tanks have exploded and killed the operator when hit by bullets or grenade shrapnel. In the documentary Vietnam in HD, platoon sergeant Charles Brown tells of how one of his men was killed when his flamethrower was hit by grenade shrapnel during the battle for Hill 875.

Flame thrower operators did not usually face a fiery death from the slightest spark or even from having their tank hit by a normal bullet as often depicted in modern war films. The Gas Container [i.e. the pressurizer] is filled with a non-flammable gas that is under high pressure. If this tank were ruptured, it might knock the operator forward as it was expended in the same way a pressurized aerosol can bursts outward when punctured. The fuel mixture in the Fuel Containers is difficult to light, which is why magnesium filled igniters are required when the weapon is fired. Fire a bullet into a metal can filled with diesel or napalm and it will merely leak out the hole unless the round was an incendiary type that could possibly ignite the mixture inside. This also applies to the flame thrower Fuel Container.[3]

The best way to minimize the disadvantages of flame weapons was to mount them on armoured vehicles. The Commonwealth and the United States were the most prolific users of vehicle-mounted flame weapons; the British and Canadians fielded "Wasps" (Universal Carriers fitted with flamethrowers) at infantry battalion level, beginning in mid-1944, and eventually incorporating them into infantry battalions. Early tank-mounted flamethrower vehicles included the "Badger" (a converted Ram tank) and the "Oke", used first at Dieppe.[2]

Operation[edit]

A propane-operated flamethrower is a relatively straightforward device. The gas is expelled through the gun assembly by its own pressure and is ignited at the exit of the barrel through piezo ignition.

Liquid-operated flamethrowers use a smaller tank with a pressurized gas to expel the flammable liquid fuel. The propellant gas is fed to two tubes. The first opens in the fuel tanks, providing the pressure necessary for expelling the liquid.[4] The other tube leads to an ignition chamber behind the exit of the gun assembly, where it is mixed with air and ignited through piezo ignition. This pre-ignition line is the source of the flame seen in front of the gun assembly in movies and documentaries. As the fuel passes through the flame, it is ignited and propelled towards the target.

History[edit]

Origins[edit]

Main article: Greek fire

Greek firemay have been an early version of the flamethrower

The concept of throwing fire as a weapon has existed since ancient times. During the Peloponnesian War, Boeotians used some kind of a flamethrower trying to destroy the fortification walls of the Athenians during the Battle of Delium.[5] Later, during the Byzantine era, sailors used rudimentary hand-pumped flamethrowers on board their naval ships. Greek fire, extensively used by the Byzantine Empire, is said to have been invented by Kallinikos of Heliopolis, probably about 673. The flamethrower found its origins in a device consisting of a hand-held pump that shot bursts of Greek fire via a siphon-hose and a piston which ignited it with a match, similar to modern versions, as it was ejected.[6] Greek fire, used primarily at sea, gave the Byzantines a substantial military advantage against enemies such as members of the Arab Empire (who later adopted the use of Greek fire). An 11th-century illustration of its use survives in the John Skylitzes manuscript.

The Pen Huo Qi (fire spraying machine; lit. spray fire device) was a Chinese piston flamethrower that used a substance similar to petrol or naphtha, invented around 919 AD during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. Advances in military technology aided the Song dynasty in its defense against hostile neighbours to the north, including the Mongols. The earliest reference to Greek fire in China was made in 917 AD, written by Wu Renchen in his Spring and Autumn Annals of the Ten Kingdoms.[7] In 919 CE, the siphon projector-pump was used to spread the 'fierce fire oil' that could not be doused with water, as recorded by Lin Yu (林禹) in his Wu-Yue Beishi (吳越備史), hence the first credible Chinese reference to the flamethrower employing the chemical solution of Greek fire.[8] Lin Yu mentioned also that the 'fierce fire oil' derived ultimately from China's contact in the 'southern seas', with Arabia (大食國 Dashiguo).[9] In the Battle of Langshan Jiang (Wolf Mountain River) in 919, the naval fleet of the Wenmu King of Wuyue defeated the fleet of the Kingdom of Wu because he had used 'fire oil' to burn his fleet; this signified the first Chinese use of gunpowder in warfare, since a slow-burning match fuse was required to ignite the flames.[10] The Chinese applied the use of double-pistonbellows to pump petrol out of a single cylinder (with an upstroke and a downstroke), lit at the end by a slow-burning gunpowder match to fire a continuous stream of flame (as referred to in the Wujing Zongyao manuscript of 1044 AD).[9] In the suppression of the Southern Tang state by 976 AD, early Song naval forces confronted them on the Yangtze River in 975 AD. Southern Tang forces attempted to use flamethrowers against the Song navy, but were accidentally consumed by their own fire when violent winds swept in their direction.[11] Documented also in later Chinese publications, illustrations and descriptions of mobile flamethrowers on four-wheel push carts appear in the Wujing Zongyao, written in 1044 AD (its illustration redrawn in 1601 as well).[12]

Abū ʿAbdallāh al-Khwārazmī in Mafātīḥ al-ʿUlūm (“Keys to the Sciences”) ca. 976 AD mentions the bāb al-midfa and the bāb al-mustaq which he said were parts of naphtha-throwers and projectors (al-naffātāt wa al-zarāqāt). Book of Ingenious Mechanical Device (Kitāb fī ma 'rifat al-ḥiyal al-handasiyya) of 1206 AD by Ibn al-Razzaz al-Jazari mentioned about ejectors of naphtha (zarāqāt al-naft).[13]: 582 

Although flamethrowers were never used in the American Civil War, the use of Greek fire was threatened, and flamethrowers have been in use in most modern conflicts ever since.[14]

Early 20th century[edit]

See also: Technology during World War I

The English word flamethrower is a loan-translation of the German word Flammenwerfer, since the modern flamethrower was invented in Germany. The first flamethrower, in the modern sense, is usually credited to Richard Fiedler. He submitted evaluation models of his Flammenwerfer to the German Army in 1901. The most significant model submitted was a portable device, consisting of a vertical single cylinder 4 feet (1.2 m) long, horizontally divided in two, with pressurized gas in the lower section and flammable oil in the upper section. On depressing a lever the propellant gas forced the flammable oil into and through a rubber tube and over a simple igniting wick device in a steel nozzle. The weapon projected a jet of fire and enormous clouds of smoke some 20 yards (18 m). It was a single-shot weapon—for burst firing, a new igniter section was attached each time.

Hungarian Gábor Szakáts invented the flamethrower which was first used by the German army in WWI. Szakáts was the only Hungarian on the list of war criminals assembled by France after the war due to the invention of the flamethrower.[15] Even his birthplace Budapest refused to bury Szakáts because of his invention.[16] It was not until 1911 that the German Army accepted their first real flamethrowing device, creating a specialist regiment of twelve companies equipped with Flammenwerfer Apparent.[17] Despite this, use of fire in a World War I battle predated flamethrower use, with a petrol spray being ignited by an incendiary bomb in the Argonne-Meuse sector in October 1914.[18]

The flamethrower was first used in World War I on 26 February 1915 when it was briefly used against the French outside Verdun. On 30 July 1915 it was first used in a concerted action, against British trenches at Hooge, where the lines were 4.5 m (4.9 yd) apart—even there, the casualties were caused mainly by soldiers being flushed into the open and then shot rather than from the fire itself.[18] After two days of fighting the British had suffered casualties of 31 officers and 751 other ranks.[19]

The success of the attack prompted the German Army to adopt the device on all fronts. Flamethrowers were used in squads of six during battles, at the start of an attack destroying the enemy and to the preceding the infantry advance.[19]

The flamethrower was useful at short distances[19] but had other limitations: it was cumbersome and difficult to operate and could only be safely fired from a trench, which limited its use to areas where the opposing trenches were less than the maximum range of the weapon, namely 18 m (20 yd) apart—which was not a common situation; the fuel would also only last for about two minutes.[18]

The German deployed flamethrowers during the war in more than 650 attacks.[19]

The British experimented with flamethrowers in the Battle of the Somme, during which they used experimental weapons called "Livens Large Gallery Flame Projectors", named for their inventor, William Howard Livens, a Royal Engineers officer.[20] This weapon was enormous and completely non-portable. The weapon had an effective range of 90 yards, which proved effective at clearing trenches, but with no other benefit the project was abandoned.[19]

Two Morriss static flamethrowers were mounted in HMS Vindictive and several Hay portable flamethrowers were deployed by the Royal Navy during the Zeebrugge Raid on 23 April 1918. A British newspaper report of the action referred to the British flamethrowers only as flammenwerfer, using the German word.[21]

The French Army deployed the Schilt family of flamethrowers, which were also used by the Italian Army.[22] The Russian army used 11,446 indigenously produced flamethrowers, over 10,000 of which were the Tovarnitski man-portable design.[22]

In the interwar period, at least four flamethrowers were used in the Chaco War by the Bolivian Army, during the unsuccessful assault on the Paraguayanstronghold of Nanawa in 1933.[23]

World War II[edit]

The flamethrower was used extensively during World War II. In 1939, the Wehrmacht first deployed man-portable flamethrowers against the Polish Post Office in Danzig. Subsequently, in 1942, the U.S. Army introduced its own man-portable flamethrower. The vulnerability of infantry carrying backpack flamethrowers and the weapon's short range led to experiments with tank-mounted flamethrowers (flame tanks), which were used by many countries.

Axis use[edit]

Germany[edit]
  • A German soldier operating a flamethrower in 1944

  • A German soldier using a flamethrower in Russia

The Germans made considerable use of the weapon (Flammenwerfer 35) during their invasion of the Netherlands and France, against fixed fortifications. World War II German army flamethrowers tended to have one large fuel tank with the pressurizer tank fastened to its back or side. Some German army flamethrowers occupied only the lower part of its wearer's back, leaving the upper part of his back free for an ordinary rucksack.

Flamethrowers soon fell into disfavor. Flamethrowers were extensively used by German units in urban fights in Poland, both in 1943 in the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising and in 1944 in the Warsaw Uprising (see the Stroop Report and the article on the 1943 Warsaw Ghetto Uprising). With the contraction of the Third Reich during the latter half of World War II, a smaller, more compact flamethrower known as the Einstossflammenwerfer 46 was produced.

Germany also used flamethrower vehicles, most of them based on the chassis of the Sd.Kfz. 251 half track and the Panzer II and Panzer III tanks, generally known as Flammpanzers.

The Germans also produced the Abwehrflammenwerfer 42, a flame-mine or flame fougasse, based on a Soviet version of the weapon.[24] This was essentially a disposable, single use flamethrower that was buried alongside conventional land mines at key defensive points and triggered by either a trip-wire or a command wire. The weapon contained around 8 US gallons (30 l) of fuel, that was discharged within a second, to a second and a half, producing a flame with a 15-yard (14 m) range.[24] One defensive installation found in Italy included seven of the weapons, carefully concealed and wired to a central control point.[24]

Italy[edit]
A Japanese soldier firing a Type 93 flamethrower

Italy employed man-portable flamethrowers and L3 Lfflame tanks during the Second Italo-Abyssinian War of 1935 to 1936, during the Spanish Civil War, and during World War II. The L3 Lf flame tank was a CV-33 or CV-35 tankette with a flamethrower operating from the machine gun mount. In the Northern Africa Theatre, the L3 Lf flame tank found little to no success.[25] An L6 Lf flametank was also developed using the L6/40 light tank platform.

Japan[edit]

Japan used man-portable flamethrowers to clear fortified positions, in the Battle of Wake Island,[26]Corregidor,[27]Battle of the Tenaru on the Guadalcanal[28] and Battle of Milne Bay.[29]

Romania[edit]

Flamethrowers were used by the Royal Romanian Army. They were also planned to become self-propelled; the Mareșal tank destroyer was planned to have a command vehicle version armed with machine guns and a flamethrower.[30]

Allies[edit]

Britain and the Commonwealth[edit]
  • A Churchill tank fitted with a Crocodile flamethrower in action.

  • An Australian soldier fires a flamethrower at a Japanese bunker

The British World War II army flamethrowers, "Ack Packs", had a doughnut-shaped fuel tank with a small spherical pressurizer gas tank in the middle. As a result, some troops nicknamed them "lifebuoys". It was officially known as Flamethrower, Portable, No 2.

Extensive plans were made in 1940-1941 by the Petroleum Warfare Department to use Flame fougasse static flame projectors in the event of an invasion, with around 50,000 barrel-based incendiary mines being deployed in 7,000 batteries throughout Southern England.

The British hardly used their man-portable systems, relying on Churchill Crocodile tanks in the European theatre. These tanks proved very effective against German defensive positions, and caused official Axis protests against their use.[citation needed] This flamethrower could produce a jet of flame exceeding 140 metres (150 yd). There are documented instances of German units summarily executing any captured British flame-tank crews.[31]

In the Pacific theatre, Australian forces used converted Matilda tanks, known as Matilda Frogs.

United States[edit]
  • Marines engaging Japanese positions on Guam with a flamethrower.

  • 2nd Marine tank Battalion "Satan" incinerates Japanese pillbox on Saipan

  • An American flamethrower operator runs under fire

  • Front and rear views of a man with a M2A1-7 United States Army flamethrower

In the Pacific theatre, the U.S. Army used M-1 and M-2 flamethrowers to clear stubborn Japanese resistance from prepared defenses, caves, and trenches. Starting in New Guinea, through the closing stages on Guadalcanal and during the approach to and reconquest of the Philippines and then through the Okinawa campaign, the Army deployed hand-held, man-portable units.

Often flamethrower teams were made up of combat engineer units, later with troops of the chemical warfare service. The Army fielded more flamethrower units than the Marine Corps, and the Army's Chemical Warfare Service pioneered tank mounted flamethrowers on Sherman tanks (CWS-POA H-4). All the flamethrower tanks on Okinawa belonged to the 713th Provisional Tank Battalion. It was tasked with supporting all U.S. Army and Marine infantry. All Pacific mechanized flamethrower units were trained by Seabee specialists with Col. Unmacht's CWS Flamethrower Group in Hawaii.

The U.S. Army used flamethrowers in Europe in much smaller numbers, though they were available for special employments. Flamethrowers were deployed during the Normandy landings in order to clear Axis fortifications.[32][33] Also, most boat teams on Omaha Beach included a two-man flamethrower team.[34]

The Marine Corps used the backpack-type M2A1-7 flamethrower and M2-2 flamethrowers, also finding them useful in clearing Japanese trench and bunker complexes. The first known USMC use of the man portable flamethrower was against the formidable defenses at Tarawa in November 1943. The Marines pioneered the use of Ronson-equipped M-3 Stuart tanks in the Marianas. These were known as SATAN flame tanks. Though effective, they lacked the armor to safely engage fortifications and were phased out in favor of the better-armored M4 Sherman tanks. USMC Flamethrower Shermans were produced at Schofield Barracks by Seabees attached to the Chemical Warfare Service under Col. Unmacht. CWS designated M4s with "CWS-POA-H" for "Chemical Warfare Service Pacific Ocean Area, Hawaii" plus a flamethrower number. The Marines had previously deployed large Navy flamethrowers mounted on LVT-4 AMTRACs at Peleliu. Late in the war, both services operated LVT-4 and -5 amphibious flametanks in limited numbers. Both the Army and the Marines still used their infantry-portable systems, despite the arrival of adapted Sherman tanks with the Ronson system (cf. flame tanks).

In cases where the Japanese were entrenched in deep caves, the flames often consumed the available oxygen, suffocating the occupants. Many Japanese troops interviewed post war said they were terrified more by flamethrowers than any other American weapon. Flamethrower operators were often the first U.S. troops targeted.

Soviet Union[edit]
A Finnish soldier with a captured Soviet ROKS-3 flamethrower, June 1943. Note the flame projector has been designed to resemble a standard infantry rifle.

The FOG-1 and -2 flamethrowers were stationary devices used in defense. They could also be categorized as a projecting incendiary mine. The FOG had only one cylinder of fuel, which was compressed using an explosive charge and projected through a nozzle. The November 1944 issue of the US War Department Intelligence Bulletin refers to these 'Fougasse flame throwers' being used in the Soviet defense of Stalingrad. The FOG-1 was directly copied by the Germans as the Abwehrflammenwerfer 42.

Unlike the flamethrowers of the other powers during World War II, the Soviets were the only ones to consciously attempt to camouflage their infantry flamethrowers. With the ROKS-2 flamethrower this was done by disguising the flame projector as a standard issue rifle, such as the Mosin–Nagant, and the fuel tanks as a standard infantryman's rucksack. This was to try to stop the flamethrower operator from being specifically targeted by enemy fire.[35] This "rifle" had a working action which was used to cycle blank igniter cartridges.

After 1945[edit]

A riverboat of the U.S. Brownwater Navyshooting ignited napalmfrom its mounted flamethrower during the Vietnam war

The United States Marines used flamethrowers in the Korean and Vietnam Wars. The M132 Armored Flamethrower, an M113 armored personnel carrier with a mounted flame thrower, was successfully used in the conflict.[36]

Flamethrowers have not been in the U.S. arsenal since 1978, when the Department of Defense unilaterally stopped using them ⁠— ⁠the last American infantry flamethrower was the Vietnam-era M9-7. They have been deemed of questionable effectiveness in modern combat. Despite some assertions, they are not generally banned, but as incendiary weapons they are subject to the usage prohibitions described under Protocol III of the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons.

USA army flamethrowers developed up to the M9 model. In the M9 the propellant tank is a sphere below the left fuel tank and does not project backwards.

Non-flamethrower incendiary weapons remain in modern military arsenals. Thermobaric weapons[37] have been fielded in Afghanistan by the United States.[38] The USA and USSR both developed a rocket launcher specifically for the deployment of incendiary munitions, respectively the M202 FLASH and the RPO "Rys" ancestor of the RPO-A Shmel.

In the last stages of the Troubles, during the mid-1980s, the IRA smuggled a number of Soviet LPO-50 military flamethrowers (supplied to them by the Libyan government) into Northern Ireland.[39] They used a flamethrower, among other weapons, to storm a British Army permanent checkpoint in Derryard, near Rosslea, on 13 December 1989.[40] Another IRA unit carried two attacks in less than a year with an improvised flamethrower towed by a tractor on a British Army watchtower, the Borucki sangar, in Crossmaglen, County Armagh, during the early 1990s. The first incident occurred on 12 December 1992,[41] when the bunker was manned by Scots Guards, and the second on 12 November 1993. The device consisted of a manure spreader which doused the facility with fuel, ignited few seconds later by a small explosion. In the 1993 action, a nine-meter-high fireball engulfed the tower for seven minutes. The four Grenadier Guards inside the outpost were rescued by a Saxon armored vehicle.[42]

Personal ownership[edit]

In the United States, private ownership of a flamethrower is not restricted by federal law, because flamethrower is a tool, not a firearm. Flamethrowers are legal in 48 states and restricted in California and Maryland.[43][44]

In California, unlicensed possession of a flame-throwing device—statutorily defined as "any non-stationary and transportable device designed or intended to emit or propel a burning stream of combustible or flammable liquid a distance of at least 10 feet" H&W 12750 (a)—is a misdemeanor punishable with a county jail term not exceeding one year OR with a fine not exceeding $10,000 (CA H&W 12761). Licenses to use flamethrowers are issued by the State Fire Marshal, and they may use any criteria for issuing or not issuing that license which is deemed fit, but must publish those criteria in the California Code of Regulations, Title 11, Section 970 et seq.[45][46][47][48]

In the United Kingdom, flamethrowers are a "prohibited weapon" under section 5(1)(b) of the Firearms Act 1968[49] and article 45(1)(f) of the Firearms (Northern Ireland) Order 2004 and possession of a flamethrower would carry a sentence of up to ten years' imprisonment.[50] In 1994, a man attacked school pupils at Sullivan Upper School, just outside Belfast, with a home-made flamethrower.[51]

A South African inventor brought the Blaster car-mounted flamethrower to market in 1998 as a security device to defend against carjackers.[52] It has since been discontinued, with the inventor moving on to pocket-sized self-defence flamethrowers.[53]

Elon Musk, CEO of Tesla, Inc. and owner of SpaceX, developed a "not a flamethrower" for public sale through his business, The Boring Company, selling 20,000 units. This device uses propane gas rather a stream of liquid fuel, making it more akin to a torch, like those commonly available at home and garden centers.[54]

Other uses[edit]

Flamethrowers are occasionally used for igniting controlled burns for land management and agriculture. For example, in the production of sugar cane, where canebrakes are burned to get rid of the dry dead leaves which clog harvesters, and incidentally kill any lurking venomous snakes. More commonly, however, a driptorch or a flare (fusee) is used.[55]

U.S. troops allegedly used flamethrowers on the streets of Washington, D.C. (mentioned in a December 1998 article in the San Francisco Flier), as one of several clearance methods used for the surprisingly large amount of snow that fell before the presidential inauguration of John F. Kennedy.[56] A history article on the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers notes, "In the end, the task force employed hundreds of dump trucks, front-end loaders, sanders, plows, rotaries, and allegedly flamethrowers to clear the way".[56]

A squad armed with backpack flamethrowers had an important part in the 2012 Summer Paralympics closing ceremony. They had one big tank each. They could make a flame about 12 feet long.

In April 2014 it was reported by South Korea's Chosun Ilbo newspaper without confirmation that a North Korean government official, O Sang-Hon, Deputy Minister at the Ministry of Public Security, was executed by flamethrower.[57]

It has been known for police to fill a "flamethrower", not with flammable liquid, but rather with tear gas dissolved in water as a riot-control device; see Converted Flamethrower 40.

See also[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^"Why Has the US Military Discontinued Use of Flamethrowers?".
  2. ^ ab"Flamethrower". canadiansoldiers.com. Archived from the original on 2007-05-18. Retrieved 2007-05-26.
  3. ^Gordon, David. Weapons of the WWII Tommy
  4. ^Harris, Tom (25 October 2001). "HowStuffWorks "How Flamethrowers Work"". Science.howstuffworks.com. Retrieved 2010-03-04.
  5. ^"History of the Peloponnesian War" – via Wikisource.
  6. ^Needham, Volume 5, 77.
  7. ^Needham, Volume 5, 80.
  8. ^Needham, Volume 5, 81.
  9. ^ abNeedham, Volume 5, 82.
  10. ^Needham, Volume 5, Part 7, 81–83.
  11. ^Needham, Volume 5, 89.
  12. ^File:Battle of kedah.jpg
  13. ^Needham, Joseph (1986). Science and Civilisation in China, Volume 5: Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Part 7, Military Technology: The Gunpowder Epic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  14. ^History of Incendiary Weapons, and their use in the American Civil War
  15. ^St. Louis Post-Dispatch from St. Louis, Missouri · Page 1, Issue Date: Saturday, 24 July 1937
  16. ^Oakland Tribune from Oakland, California · Page 3, Issue Date: Monday, 26 July 1937
  17. ^The New Shell Book of Firsts – Patrick Robertson (Headline)
  18. ^ abcFirst World War, Willmott, H. P., Dorling Kindersley, 2003, p. 106
  19. ^ abcde"First World War.com - Weapons of War: Flamethrowers". www.firstworldwar.com.
  20. ^Copping, Jasper (9 May 2010). "Secret terror weapon of the Somme battle 'discovered'". Daily Telegraph. London.
  21. ^Daily Telegraph, 26 April 1918, reprinted in the Daily Telegraph, 26 April 2018
  22. ^ abMcNab, Chris (2015). The Flamethrower. London: Bloomsbury Publishing. pp. 16–18. ISBN .
  23. ^Scheina, Robert L. (2003). Latin America's Wars Volume II: The Age of the Professional Soldier, 1900-2001. Washington, D.C.: Brassey's, p. 97. ISBN 1-57488-452-2.
  24. ^ abc"Fougasse Flame Throwers from Intelligence Bulletin, November 1944". lonesentry.com. Retrieved 3 August 2010.
  25. ^World War II, Willmott, H.P., Dorling Kindersley, 2004, Page 165, ISBN 1-4053-0477-4
  26. ^Devereux, Col. James P. F. "There are Japanese in the Bushes..." in The United States Marine Corps in World War II compiled and edited by S. E. Smith, Random House, 1969, p.50.
  27. ^World War II, Willmott, H.P., Dorling Kindersley, 2004, Page 121, ISBN 1-4053-0477-4
  28. ^p.108 Hinton, David R. Letters from the Dead: Guadalcanal 2005 Hinton Publishing
  29. ^Boettcher, Brian Eleven Bloody Days: The Battle for Milne Bay self published 2009
  30. ^Scafeș, Cornel (2004). "Buletinul Muzeului Național Militar, Nr. 2/2004" [Bulletin of the National Military Museum, No. 2/2004]. National Military Museum (in Romanian). Bucharest: Total Publishing., p. 229
  31. ^Jarymowycz, Roman Johann (2001). Tank Tactics: From Normandy to Lorraine. Lynne Rienner Publishers. p. 199. ISBN .
  32. ^Holderfield, Randy (2001). D-Day: The Invasion of Normandy, June 6, 1944. Da Capo Press. p. 76. ISBN .
  33. ^Drez, Ronald (1998). Voices of D-Day: The Story of the Allied Invasion, Told by Those Who Were There. Louisiana State University Press. pp. 35, 201–211. ISBN .
  34. ^Balkoski, Joseph (2004). Omaha Beach: D-Day, June 6, 1944. Stackpole Books. p. 368. ISBN .
  35. ^Chris Bishop (2002). The Encyclopedia of Weapons of World War II. Sterling Publishing Company. pp. 270–. ISBN .
  36. ^Renquist, Capt. John (Summer 2008). "U.S Army Flamethrower Vehicles (Part Three of a Three-Part Series)" (Archived 2012-10-19 at the Wayback Machine). CML Army Chemical Review. Wood.army.mil.
  37. ^XM1060 40mm Thermobaric Grenade. GlobalSecurity.org, 25 November 2005. Accessed 27 May 2010.
  38. ^Hambling, David (May 15, 2009). "U.S. Denies Incendiary Weapon Use in Afghanistan". Wired.com. Accessed 27 May 2010.
  39. ^O'Brien, Brendan (1999). The Long War: The IRA and Sinn Féin, Syracuse University Press, p. 279. ISBN 0-8156-0597-8
  40. ^Moloney, Ed (2003). A secret story of the IRA. W.W. Norton & co., p. 333. ISBN 0-393-32502-4
  41. ^"Loyalists fire rocket at prison canteen". The Independent. 1992-12-14. Retrieved 2019-06-07.
  42. ^Harnden, Toby (2001). Bandit Country: The IRA & South Armagh. Hodder & Stoughton. pp. 123–24. ISBN .
  43. ^"See the terrifying personal flamethrower that's apparently legal in 48 states". Washington Post. Retrieved 2017-02-08.
  44. ^http://xm42.com/volusion/mapRestricted.png
  45. ^CA Regs (CA H&W 12756)
  46. ^"Definitions and scope".
  47. ^"Administration". leginfo.ca.gov. Archived from the original on 2010-01-17. Retrieved 2010-03-04.
  48. ^"Enforcement and penalties". leginfo.ca.gov. Archived from the original on 2010-01-12. Retrieved 2010-03-04.
  49. ^"Firearms Act 1968". www.opsi.gov.uk.
  50. ^"Firearms Act 1968". www.opsi.gov.uk.
  51. ^"Pupils hurt in 'flame-thrower' attack". The Independent. October 23, 2011.
  52. ^"Flamethrower now an option on S. African cars". CNN. December 11, 1998. Retrieved 2010-03-04.
  53. ^Fourie, Charl (2001-02-13). AM (ABC Radio) (Interview). Interviewed by Sara Sally http://www.abc.net.au/am/stories/s245655.htm.
  54. ^"Elon Musk sells all 20,000 Boring Company 'flamethrowers'". The Guardian. London. February 1, 2018. Retrieved 2020-07-11.
  55. ^"FAQ". throwflame.com. Retrieved 2018-02-08.
  56. ^ ab"Inauguration Weather: The Case of Kennedy". The Washington Post, Capital Weather Gang, January 5, 2009.
  57. ^"North Korean official 'executed by flame-thrower'". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 2016-04-14.

General bibliography[edit]

  • McNab, Chris (2015). The Flamethrower. London: Bloomsbury Publishing. pp. 16–18. ISBN .
  • Needham, Joseph (1986). Science and Civilization in China. Volume 5, Part 7. Taipei: Caves Books, Ltd.
  • Wictor, Thomas (2010). Flamethrower Troops of World War I. Atglen, Pennsylvania: Schiffer Publishing Ltd (USA). ISBN .

External links[edit]

Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flamethrower

Pen flamethrower

Fierce-fire Oil Cabinet

A Chineseflamethrower from the Wujing Zongyaomanuscript of 1044 AD, Song Dynasty. The text reads from top to bottom: ignition chamber, horizontal tank, piston rod, and fierce-fire oil tank cabinet installed form.
From the Sancai Tuhui, 1609.

The Fierce-fire Oil Cabinet (Chinese: 猛火油櫃 měng huǒ yóu guì) was a double-piston pump naphthaflamethrower first recorded to have been used in 919 AD in China, during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.

Petroleum had been used in China since the late Zhou dynasty in 5th century BC, but the distilled fierce fire oil, otherwise known as petrol or Greek fire in the west, was not used until the 10th century AD. According to Wu Renchen's Spring and Autumn Annals of the Ten Kingdoms, in 917 AD, the king of Wuyue sent fierce fire oil to the Khitans as a gift. The envoy explained that it could be used to attack cities and the Khitan ruler was delighted.

The History of Liao gives an extended version of the account:

The ruler of Wu State (Li Bian) sent to Abaoji, ruler of the Qidan (Liao), a quantity of furious fiery oil (meng huoyou) which on being set alight and coming in contact with water blazed all the more fiercely. It could be used in attacking cities. Tai Zu (Abaoji) was delighted, and at once got ready a cavalry force thirty thousand strong with the intention of attacking Youzhou. But his queen, Shulü laughed and said: 'Whoever heard of attacking a country with oil? Would it not be better to take three thousand horse and lie in wait on the borders, laying waste the country, so that the city will be starved out? By that means they will be brought to straits infallibly, even though it takes a few years. So why all this haste? Take care lest you be worsted, so that the Chinese mock at us, and our own people fall away.' Therefore he went no further in his design.

— History of Liao

According to Lin Yu's Wu-Yue Beishi (吳越備史, "The History of Wu and Yue"), the next appearance of fierce fire oil occurred in 919 AD when the two fleets of Wuyue and Wu met in battle. In the Battle of Langshan Jiang (Wolf Mountain River), the Wuyue fleet under Qian Chuanguan brought with them more than 500 dragon-like battleships and used "fire oil" to burn the enemy fleet. It was a great victory and they destroyed more than 400 enemy ships as well as capturing more than 7,000 men. Lin Yu goes on to explain appearance of the new weapon and the device used to deploy it:

What is 'fire oil'? It comes from Arabia (Dashi Guo) in the southern seas. It is spouted forth from iron tubes. and when meeting with water or wet things it gives forth flame and smoke even more abundantly. Wusu Wang used to decorate the mouths of the tubes with silver, so that if (the tank and tube) fell into the hands of the enemy, they would scrape off the silver and reject the rest of the apparatus. So the fire oil itself would not get into their hands (and could be recovered later).

— The History of Wu and Yue

Joseph Needham believes that If the flamethrower used in 919 AD was of the same design as the one described in the later Wujing Zongyao in 1044, then it is also by implication the earliest known use of the slow match. Therefore also one of the first military applications of gunpowder. The following is a description of the flamethrower as provided by the Wujing Zongyao:

On the right is the petrol flamethrower (lit. fierce fire oil-shooter, fang meng huo you). The tank is made of brass (shou tong), and supported on four legs. From its upper surface arise four (vertical) tubes attached to a horizontal cylinder (ju tong) above; they are all connected with the tank. The head and the tail of the cylinder are large (the middle) is of narrow (diameter). In the tail end there is a small opening as big as a millet grain. The head end has (two) round openings 1½ inches in diameter. At the side of the tank there is a hole with a (little) tube which is used for filling, and this is fitted with a cover. Inside the cylinder there is a (piston-)rod packed with silk floss (za si zhang), the head of which is wound round with hemp waste about ½ inches thick. Before and behind, the two communicating tubes are (alternately) occluded (lit. controlled, shu), and (the mechanism) thus determined. The tail has a horizontal handle (the pump handle), in front of which there is a round cover. When (the handle is pushed) in (the pistons) close the mouth of the tubes (in turn).

Before use the tank is filled with rather more than three catties of the oil with a spoon through a filter (sha luo); at the same time gunpowder (composition) (huo yao) is placed in the ignition chamber (huo lou) at the head. When the fire is to be started one applies a heated branding iron (to the ignition chamber), and the piston-rod is forced fully into the cylinder—then the man at the back is ordered to draw the piston rod (za zhang) fully backwards and work it (back and forth) as vigorously as possible. Whereupon the oil (the petrol) comes out through the ignition chamber and is shot forth as blazing flame.

Whereupon the oil (the petrol) comes out through the ignition-chamber and is shot forth as blazing flame. When filling, use the bowl, the spoon and the filter; for igniting there is the branding-iron; for maintaining (or renewing) the fire there is the container (guan). The branding-iron is made sharp like an awl so that it may be used to unblock the tubes if they get stopped up. There are tongs with which to pick up the glowing fire, and there is a soldering-iron for stopping-up leaks.

[Comm. If the tank or the tubes get cracked and leak they may be mended by using green wax. Altogether there are 12 items of equipment, all of brass except the tongs, the branding-iron and the soldering-iron.]

Another method is to fix a brass gourd-shaped container inside a large tube; below it has two feet, and inside there are two small feet communicating with them.

[Comm. all made of brass],

and there is also the piston (za si zhang). The method of shooting is as described above.

If the enemy comes to attack a city, these weapons are placed on the great ramparts, or else in outworks, so that large numbers of assailants cannot get through.

— Wujing Zongyao

Flamethrowers were also recorded to have been used in 976 AD when Song naval forces confronted the Southern Tang fleet on the Changjiang. Southern Tang forces attempted to use flamethrowers against the Song navy, but were accidentally consumed by their own fire when violent winds swept in their direction. The flamethrower was a well known device by the 11th century when it was joked that Confucian scholars knew it better than the classics. Both gunpowder and the fierce fire oil were produced under the Arsenals Administration of the Song dynasty. In the early 12th century AD, Kang Yuzhi recorded his memories of military commanders testing out fierce oil fire on a small lakelet. They would spray it about on the opposite bank that represented the enemy camp. The flames would ignite into a sheet of flame, destroying the wooden fortifications, and even killing the water plants, fishes and turtles.In 1126 AD, Li Gang used flamethrowers in an attempt to prevent the Jurchens from crossing the Yellow River. Illustrations and descriptions of mobile flamethrowers on four-wheel push carts were documented in the Wujing Zongyao, written in 1044 AD (its illustration redrawn in 1601 as well).

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fierce-fire_Oil_Cabinet
XL18 Flamethrower!!!

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