Valerian root in hindi

Valerian root in hindi DEFAULT

Valerian (Valeriana Officinalis), also called Tagar, is brain tonic, stress reliever, antispasmodic, hypnotic and mild sedative in action. Due to these characteristics, it is highly used in herbal medicines for diseases related to brain, mind and muscles.

Valerian Varieties

Valerian or Tagar has two main variety used for medicinal purposes.

  1. True Valerian (Valeriana Officinalis)
  2. Indian Valerian (Valeriana Wallichii)

Both valerians work in similar ways and share similar medicinal properties. In this article, we will talk about both species.

Botanical Description

Basic Information

Scientific NameValeriana Officinalis
Plant FamilyValerianaceae  (Valerians)
Hindi NameTAGAR
Sanskrit NameTAGAR
English NameValerian

Botanical Classification (Taxonomy)

KingdomPLANTAE
Sub-KingdomVIRIDIPLANTAE
Infra KingdomSTREPTOPHYTA  (land plants)
Super DivisionEMBRYOPHYTA
DivisionTRACHEOPHYTA (TRACHEOPHYTES or Vascular Plants)
Sub DivisionSPERMATOPHYTINA (SPERMATOPHYTES or Seed Plants)
ClassMAGNOLIOPSIDA
Super OrderASTERANAE
OrderDIPSACALES
FamilyVALERIANACEAE (Valerians)
GenusValeriana L.
SpeciesValeriana Officinalis L. (Garden Valerian or Garden Heliotrope)Valeriana Wallichii (Indian Valerian)

Medicinal Parts

The roots of Tagar and valerian species are used for medicinal purposes. Roots contain volatile oil and phyto-chemicals, which are responsible for its medicinal value.

Phytochemistry (Active Constituents)

The following compounds are present in valerian.

ALKALOIDS

  • VALERIANINE
  • VALERINE
  • ACTINIDINE
  • CHATININE
  • SHYANTHINE

IRIDOIDS & VALEPOTRIATES

Others

  • GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID (GABA)
  • ISOVALERIC ACID

Volatile Oil contains following SESQUITERPENES

  • VALERENIC ACID
  • ACETOXYVALERENIC ACID
  • HYDROXYVALERENIC ACID

FLAVANONES

  • HESPERIDIN
  • LINARIN
  • 6-METHYLAPIGENIN

Medicinal Properties & Action

Valerian (Tagar) has following healing properties and medicinal action.

  1. Anti-inflammatory
  2. Expectorant
  3. Reduces body odor
  4. Digestive stimulant
  5. Antispasmodic and Muscle relaxant
  6. Emmenagogue

Therapeutic Indications

Valerian is helpful in following health conditions.

General Symptoms

  • Stress
  • Restlessness
  • Mental Fatigue
  • Nervousness
  • Depressive feelings
  • Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS)
  • Bad body odor

Mind, Brain & Nerves

  • Anxiety
  • Depression
  • Insomnia and sleeping disorders (greatly beneficial)
  • Mental stress
  • Memory loss (mild effects)
  • Headache (more beneficial in headache, which is mild, dull and continuous steady pain. It may not help with throbbing pain and severe headache.)
  • Migraine (with feeling of nausea, dull pain, and continuous steady headache)
  • As a brain tonic
  • Emotional stress
  • Unmanageable emotional excesses
  • Hypochondria (fear of illness)
  • Tremors (mildly effective and may require mixing its root powder with other herbs)
  • Epilepsy
  • Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Some people also use Tagar in excitability, but we have not found it effective in such cases.

Digestive Health

  • Loss of appetite associated with mental illness
  • Indigestion
  • Irritable bowel syndrome
  • Stomach Upset
  • Flatulence
  • Intestinal Gas

Muscle, Bones & Joints

  • Muscle spasm (antispasmodic)
  • Muscular pain
  • Joint pain (mild anti-inflammatory action)

Women Health

  • Menstrual cramps (Painful periods or dysmenorrhea)
  • Anxiety associated with menopause
  • Amenorrhea (Mild Action)

We have not found it effective in hot flashes that occur in menopause. Licorice, Bacopa Monnieri (Brahmi), Centella Asiatica (Gotu Kola) work better than valerian in menopause.

Valerian Side Effects

Valerian (Tagar) is LIKELY SAFE in recommended therapeutic dosage. However, you should use it for a short period (one to three months). The efficacy and safety of long-term use is not yet established.

A few side effects of valerian are.

  • Headache (common)
  • Excitability
  • Uneasiness

Headache occurs when it is used in patients with history of severe headache, throbbing pain and acute cases. It may work well when used in mild and dull headache.

Caution

According to ayurveda, Valerian is effective in KAPHA and VATA type people. It produces heat in the body after ingestion. Therefore, people with burning sensation, heat sensation in the feet, heartburn, acidity, ulcer, ulcerative colitis should avoid using it. It may aggravate these problems.

Pregnancy & Breastfeeding

According to ayurveda, you should not use Tagar in pregnancy and breastfeeding. It may induce uterine stimulation and contractions. The more information about its safety in pregnancy and breastfeeding is yet unknown. Therefore, you should avoid its use in pregnancy and breastfeeding.

Contraindications

The main contraindications are.

  • Before and after surgery &#; Tagar may interact with Anesthetic medicines.
  • Ulcerative colitis &#; It may aggravate bleeding.
  • Ulcer, heartburn, acidity &#; It may increases symptoms of these diseases
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VALERIAN

Scientific Classification:

KingdomPlantae
DivisionMagnoliophyta
OrderDipsacales
FamilyValerianaceae
GenusValeriana
SpeciesV. officinalis
Binomial nameValeriana officinalis


Other Common Names:

The other common names for the herb valerian are Blessed Herb, Capon's Tail, English Valerian, Garden Heliotrope, German Valerian, Great Wild Valerian, Heliotrope, Setwall, Tagara, Valerian, Vandalroot and Vermont Valerian.

History

VALERIANA OFFICINALIS1VALERIANA OFFICINALIS2
The word Valerian occurs in the recipes of the Anglo Saxon leeches (eleventh century). Valerian, Amantilla and Fu are used as synonymous in the Alphita, a mediaeval vocabulary of the important medical school of Salernum.The derivation of the name of this genus of plants is differently given. It is said by some authors to have been named after Valerius, who first used it in medicine; while others derive the name from the Latin word valere (to be in health), on account of its medicinal qualities.Theriacaria, Marinella, Genicularis and Terdina are other old names by which Valerian has been known in former days. Another old name met with in Chaucer and other old writers is 'Setwall' or 'Setewale,' the derivation of which is uncertain. Mediaeval herbalists also called the plant 'Capon's Tail,' which has rather fantastically been explained as a reference to its spreading head of whitish flowers. The plant was in such esteem in mediaeval times as a remedy, that it received the name of All Heal, which is still given it in some parts of the country. Valerian extracts became popular in the United States and Europe in the mids, and continued to be used by both physicians and the lay public until it was widely replaced by prescription sedative drugs.

Description

VALERIAN HERBS1VALERIAN HERBS2VALERIAN HERBS3
Valerian is a perennial plant, about feet high. The yellow-brown, tuberous rootstock produces a hollow, angular, furrowed stem with slender. Horizontal branches which terminate in buds are given off earlier, and from these buds proceed aerial shoots or stolons, which produce fresh plants where they take root. It terminates in two or more pairs of flowering stems, each pair being placed at right angles to those above and below it. The lower flowering stems lengthen so as to place their flowers nearly or often quite on a level with the flowers borne by the upper branches, forming a broad and flattened cluster at the summit, called a cyme.The limb of the calyx is remarkable for being at first inrolled and afterwards expanding in the form of a feathery pappus, which aids the dissemination of the fruit. The leaves are arranged in pairs and are united at their bases. Each leaf is made up of a series of lance-shaped segments, more or less opposite to one another on each side of the leaf (pinnate). The leaflets vary very much in number, from six to ten pairs as a rule, and vary also in breadth, being broad when few in number and narrower when more numerous; they are usually 2 to 3 inches long. The margins are indented by a few coarsely-cut teeth. The upper surface is strongly veined, the under surface is paler and frequently more or less covered with short, soft hairs. The leaves on the stem are attached by short, broad sheaths, the radical leaves are larger and long-stemmed and the margins more toothed. The fruit is a capsule containing one oblong compressed seed. Apart from the flowers, the whole plant has a foetid smell, much accentuated when bruised.

Range

The plant is found throughout Europe and Northern Asia, and is common in England Two species of Valerian, Valeriana officinalis and V. dioica, are indigenous in Britain, while a third, V. pyrenaica, is naturalized in some parts. The genus comprises about species, which are widely distributed in the temperate parts of the world.

Habitat

This herb thrives best in marshy thickets and on the borders of ditches and rivers. valerian grows wild in damp conditions. Valerian does well in all ordinary soils, but prefers rich, heavy loam, well supplied with moisture.

Cultivation

The wild plants are collected from local woods and transplanted to the prepared land. Generally the young flowering plants given off by the perennial rhizomes of old plants which develop towards the close of summer are given preference. These should be set 1 foot apart in rows, 2 or 3 feet apart. The soil should first be treated with farmyard manure, and after planting it is well to give liquid manure from time to time, as well as plenty of water. The soil must be well manured to secure a good crop. Weeding requires considerable attention.

Propagation may also be by seed, either sown when ripe in cold frames, or in March in gentle heat, or in the open in April. In the first two cases, transplant in May to permanent quarters. But to ensure the best alkaloidal percentage, it is best to transplant and cultivate the daughter plants of the wild Valerian. The flowering tops must be cut off as they appear, thus enabling the better development of the rhizome. Many of the young plants do not flower in the first year, but produce a luxuriant crop of leaves, and yield rhizome of good quality in the autumn.

Flowering Season

The flowers of the valerian are in full bloom in late spring.

Pests and Diseases

Valerian succumbed to disease that is exacerbated by moisture and mulch retains too much water.Rarely it is been affected by plant feeding insects and mites.

Parts Used

VALERIAN PARTS The roots and rhizome are the most commonly used part of the valerian herb.

Medicinal and Commercial Applications

VALERIAN MEDICINE
  • It is excellent for headaches, trembling, palpitations, hysteric complaints and the vapours.

  • It is used by Eastern nations to aromatize their baths.

  • It is used in treating cramps.

  • Valerian is a powerful nervine, stimulant, carminative and antispasmodic.

  • It has a remarkable influence on the cerebro-spinal system, and is used as a sedative. The drug allays pain and promotes sleep. It is of especial use and benefit to those suffering from nervous overstrains.

  • Oil of Valerian is employed to a considerable extent on the Continent as a popular remedy for cholera, in the form of cholera drops, and also to a certain extent in soap perfumery.

  • Valerian helps in strengthening the eyesight, by giving energy to the optic nerve.

  • It is used as an anti-convulsant in epilepsy.

  • Valerian has been used in the treatment of cardiac palpitations.

  • Valerian is beneficial for almost any stress-related condition, and, in general, has a calming, rather than directly sedative, effect on the mind.

  • Many symptoms of anxiety, including tremors, panic, palpitations, and sweating, can be relieved with valerian.

  • Valerian relaxes over contracted muscles, and is helpful for shoulder and neck tension, asthma, colic, irritable bowel syndrome, muscle spasms, and menstrual pain.

Folklore and Myths

'Men who begin to fight and when you wish to stop them, give to them the juice of Amantilla id est Valeriana and peace will be made immediately. Valerian is sedative to humans, but excites both cats and mice. In the legend of the Pied Piper of Hamlin, he baited the rodents with valerian to drive them out of the city. The flowers are used in charm bags to encourage love, protection and sleep.



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What Is Valerian Root?

Valerian, also known as Valeriana officinalis, is a flowering plant native to Europe and Asia. The root of the plant has long been used as a herbal remedy to treat insomnia.  The use of valerian root dates back to the Greek and Roman Empires and was noted by Hippocrates to treat headaches, nervousness, trembling, and heart palpitations.

Valerian contains a substance known as valerenic acid that is believed to affect gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors in the brain. It is believed that one of the purposes of GABA is to control fear or anxiety experienced when nerve cells are overexcited. By doing so, valerian may act as a mild sedative and anxiolytic (anxiety-reducing drug).

Also Known As

  • All-Heal
  • Amantilla
  • Baldrian
  • Garden heliotrope
  • Setwall
  • Tagar (in Ayurvedic medicine)
  • Xie cao (in traditional Chinese medicine)

Valerian is available in teas, extracts, tinctures, capsules, tablets, and essential oils. Valerian extract and essential oils are also used as a flavoring in foods and beverages.

What Is Valerian Root Used For?

Alternative healthcare providers believe that valerian root can treat a variety of health conditions, including insomnia, anxiety, headaches, digestive problems, menopause symptoms, and post-exercise muscle pain and fatigue. The evidence supporting these claims is generally mixed.

Here is a look at some of the more common uses of valerian root:

Insomnia

Valerian root is probably best known as a remedy for insomnia. Despite its popularity among consumers, there is little evidence that it can promote sleep or improve the quality of sleep.

A review of studies in Sleep Medicine Reviews concluded that valerian root (or similar "calming" herbs like chamomile or kava) had no discernable impact on sleep in 1, adults with insomnia.

Anxiety

Valerian root is touted by some as a safe and natural alternative to prescription anxiety drugs, most especially those like Xanax (alprazolam), Klonopin (clonazepam), Valium (diazepam), and Ativan (lorazepam) that act on GABA receptors.

There is some evidence, albeit weak, to support these claims.  Valerenic acid appears to act on receptors in a way that enhances GABA transmission but without the pronounced sedative effects of a drug like Valium. This may benefit people on treatment for anxiety and other mood disorders.

A review from Harvard Medical School contends that of 12 traditional herbs used to treat anxiety (including hops, gotu kola, and gingko), valerian was the "most promising candidate" for treating anxiety associated with bipolar disorder.

Hot Flashes

Valerian root may be useful in minimizing hot flashes commonly affecting women during menopause. The exact mechanism of action is unknown since valerian doesn't appear to directly influence hormone levels.

A study from Iran involving 68 women with menopause reported that valerian capsules, when taken thrice-daily in milligram doses for eight weeks, reduced the severity and frequency of hot flashes compared to a placebo.

No notable side effects were reported.

10 Simple Ways to Curb Hot Flashes

Possible Side Effects

Most clinical studies have shown that valerian root is well-tolerated and safe for short-term use. Side effects, if any, tend to be mild and may include headache, dizziness, itchiness, upset stomach, dry mouth, vivid dreams, and daytime drowsiness.

Although rare, liver damage has been known to occur, usually in response to the overuse of valerian supplements or "wild-crafted" dried root. It is not known whether the cause of the liver damage was due to valerian itself or contaminants in the product.

To avoid injury, let your healthcare provider know if you intend to use valerian root for medical purposes. Ideally, you should have your liver enzymes monitored regularly to ensure that your liver remains healthy and functioning.

Stop using valerian and call your healthcare provider immediately if you have any signs of liver impairment, including persistent fatigue, nausea, vomiting, dark urine, clay-colored stools, or jaundice (yellowing of the eyes or skin).

Valerian may cause excessive sleepiness if combined with alcohol, sedatives, some antidepressants, over-the-counter sleeping pills, or cold and flu remedies containing codeine, diphenhydramine, or doxylamine.

Due to the lack of safety research, valerian should not be used in children, pregnant women, or nursing mothers. It should also be used with extreme caution in heavy drinkers or people with liver disease.

Drug Interactions

Valerian is broken down in the liver by an enzyme known as cytochrome P (CYP). Theoretically, it could interfere with the effectiveness of medications that are also broken down by CYP, including:

  • Allergy medications like Allegra (fexofenadine)
  • Antifungal drugs such as Sporanox (itraconazole) or Diflucan (fluconazole)
  • Cancer medications like Camptosar (irinotecan), Etopophos (etoposide), STI, Abraxane (paclitaxel), Velban (vinblastine), or Vincasar (vincristine)
  • Statin drugs such as Mevacor (lovastatin) or Lipitor (atorvastatin)

Dosage and Preparation

There is no set dosage for valerian root or valerian root extracts. Most valerian capsules and tablets are formulated in doses ranging from to milligrams and are considered safe within this range.

The effects of valerian root are said to be noticeable within one to two hours. It is usually best to take a dose 30 minutes or two hours before bedtime.

To make valerian tea, add 2 to 3 grams of dried valerian root (roughly 1 to 2 teaspoons) to one cup of hot water and allow to steep for 10 to 15 minutes. Valerian tinctures and extracts can vary in concentration; as a general rule, never exceed the recommended dosage on the product label.

Valerian essential oil is mainly used for aromatherapy and is not intended for internal use. Even food-grade essential oils used for flavoring should never be taken by mouth.

What to Look For

Because herbal remedies like valerian root are largely unregulated in the United States, you need to take steps to find products that are safe and reliable.

One way to do this is by checking the label to see if the supplement has been certified by an independent agency like the U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP), ConsumerLab, and NSF International. These certifying bodies are tasked with ensuring that drugs and supplements voluntarily submitted for testing contain the active and inactive ingredients listed on the product label.

Another way to choose herbal supplements is to pick those that have been certified organic under the regulations of Organic Foods Production Act of This is especially true when buying dried "wild-crafted" root or root shavings used to make teas and tinctures.

14 Natural Ways to Beat Insomnia

Frequently Asked Questions

  • There are some possible side effects associated with valerian root, although most of them are mild. These include headache, dizziness, itchiness, stomachache, dry mouth, vivid dreams, and drowsiness. It's rare, but liver damage has also been seen in excessive usage of valerian root supplements. Like with everything else, use in moderation to avoid the chance of side effects.

  • People using antidepressants should not use valerian root, as it can cause drowsiness when combined with these medications. It has a similar effect when used with alcohol, sedatives, over-the-counter sleeping pills, or certain cold and flu remedies. Worse, valerian root might interfere with the effectiveness of allergy medications, antifungal drugs, cancer medications, or statin drugs.

    As a safety measure, it's always a good idea to speak to your doctor or prescriber before trying a supplement that can alter the efficacy of your medication.

  • Yes, valerian root is available in a pill, as a powder, or in liquid form. Some people who use valerian root have it as a tea, which requires dried valerian root to create.

Thanks for your feedback!

Verywell Health uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.

  1. Leach MJ, Page AT. Herbal medicine for insomnia: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Sleep Medicine Reviews. ; doi/j.smrv

  2. National Institutes of Health. Valerian.

  3. Savage K, Firth J, Stough C, Sarris J. GABA-modulating phytomedicines for anxiety: A systematic review of preclinical and clinical evidence. Phytother Res. ;32(1) doi/ptr

  4. Jenabi E, Shobeiri F, Hazavehei SMM, Roshanaei G. The effect of Valerian on the severity and frequency of hot flashes: A triple-blind randomized clinical trial. Women & Health. ;58(3) doi/

  5. National Capital Poison Center. Valerian Benefits and Risks.

  6. Kia YH, Alexander S, Dowling D, Standish R. A case of steroid-responsive valerian-associated hepatitis. Intern Med J. ;46(1) doi/imj

  7. Serrano J. LiverTox: An online information resource and a site for case report submission on drug-induced liver injury. Clinical Liver Disease. ;4(1) doi/cld

  8. Wanwimolruk S, Prachayasittikul V. Cytochrome P enzyme mediated herbal drug interactions (Part 1). EXCLI J. ;

  9. American Family Physician. Valerian.

  10. US Pharmacopeia. Dietary Supplements & Herbal Medicines.

  11. University of Michigan Health. Valerian. Current as of 23 September,

Additional Reading
  • Baek, J.; Nierenberg, A.; Kinrys, G. et al. Clinical applications of herbal medicines for anxiety and insomnia; targeting patients with bipolar disorder.Aust N Zealand J Psychiatry. (8) doi/

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Valerian uses and Benefits
ativePhoto:Thingnam Girija
Common name: Indian Valerian • Hindi: Tagger, Asarun, Shami, Chhar • Marathi: Taggerganthoda • Bengali: Balchur, Tagger • Nepali: नक्कली जटामसि Nakkali jatamasi

Botanical name:Valeriana hardwickei    Family:Caprifoliaceae (Honeysuckle family)
Synonyms: Valeriana hardwickeana, Valeriana hardwickii, Valeriana elata


Indian Valerian is a perennial herb, distinguished by its pairs of stem-leaves which are large, compound, with leaflets, and its white or pale pink flowers. These tiny flower, mm across, are borne in dense, domed clusters at the end of branches. The clusters form a branched pyramidal inflorescence. Basal leaves are long-stalked, and are usually shriveled during flowering. Stem is ft tall. Indian Valerian is found in shrubberies and open slopes, at altitudes of m. Flowering: June-September.
Medicinal uses:Indian Valerian is a well-known and frequently used medicinal herb that has a long and proven history of efficacy. It is noted especially for its effect as a tranquilliser and nervine, particularly for those people suffering from nervous overstrain. Valerian has been shown to encourage sleep, improve sleep quality and reduce blood pressure.

Identification credit: Gajendra Singh Photographed in Valley of Flowers, Uttarakhand.

• Is this flower misidentified? If yes,

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The flower labeled Indian Valerian is

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Root in hindi valerian

Valerian (herb)

For other uses, see Valerian (disambiguation).

species of flowering plant in the honeysuckle family Caprifoliaceae

Valerian (Valeriana officinalis, Caprifoliaceae) is a perennial flowering plant native to Europe and Asia.[1] In the summer when the mature plant may have a height of metres (5&#;ft), it bears sweetly scented pink or white flowers that attract many fly species, especially hoverflies of the genus Eristalis.[2] It is consumed as food by the larvae of some Lepidoptera (butterfly and moth) species, including the grey pug.

Crude extract of Valerian root may have sedative and anxiolytic effects, and is commonly sold in dietary supplementcapsules to promote sleep.[1]

History[edit]

Valerian has been used as a medicinal herb since at least the time of ancient Greece and Rome. Hippocrates described its properties, and Galen later prescribed it as a remedy for insomnia. In medieval Sweden, it was sometimes placed in the wedding clothes of the groom to ward off the "envy" of the elves.[3] In the 16th century, the Anabaptist reformer Pilgram Marpeck prescribed Valerian tea for a sick woman.[4]

John Gerard's Herball, first published in , states that his contemporaries found Valerian "excellent for those burdened and for such as be troubled with croup and other like convulsions, and also for those that are bruised with falls." He says that the dried root was valued as a medicine by the poor in the north of England and the south of Scotland, so that "no broth or pottage or physical meats be worth anything if Setewale [Valerian] be not there".[5][6]

The seventeenth century astrological botanistNicholas Culpeper thought the plant was "under the influence of Mercury, and therefore hath a warming faculty." He recommended both herb and root, and said that "the root boiled with liquorice, raisons and aniseed is good for those troubled with cough. Also, it is of special value against the plague, the decoction thereof being drunk and the root smelled. The green herb being bruised and applied to the head taketh away pain and pricking thereof."[6]

Etymology and common names[edit]

The name of the herb is derived from the personal name Valeria and the Latin verb valere (to be strong, healthy).[7][8] Other names used for this plant include garden valerian (to distinguish it from other Valeriana species), garden heliotrope (although not related to Heliotropium), setwall and all-heal (which is also used for plants in the genus Stachys). Red valerian, often grown in gardens, is also sometimes referred to as "valerian", but is a different species (Centranthus ruber), from the same family but not very closely related.

[edit]

Biochemical composition[edit]

Known compounds detected in Valerian include:

Potential mechanism[edit]

Because of Valerian's historical use in traditional medicine for diverse purposes, such as for sedation or pain relief, laboratory research has been directed at the GABAA receptor, a class of receptors on which benzodiazepines act.[16][17]Valeric acid[clarification needed] which is responsible for the typical odor of mostly older valerian roots, does not have any sedative properties. Valproic acid, a widely prescribed anticonvulsant is a derivative of valeric acid.[clarification needed]

Valerian also contains isovaltrate, which has been shown to be an inverse agonist for adenosine A1 receptor sites. This action likely does not contribute to the herb's possible sedative effects, which would be expected from an agonist, rather than an inverse agonist, at this particular binding site. Hydrophilic extractions of the herb commonly sold over the counter, however, probably do not contain significant amounts of isovaltrate.[18]Valerenic acid in valerian stimulates serotonin receptors as a partial agonist,[19] including 5-HT5A which is implicated in the sleep-wake cycle.[20]

Preparation[edit]

The chief constituent of Valerian is a yellowish-green to brownish-yellow oil present in the dried root, varying in content from to %. This variation in quantity may be determined by location; a dry, stony soil yields a root richer in oil than moist, fertile soil.[21] The volatile oils that form the active ingredient are pungent, somewhat reminiscent of well-matured cheese. Though some people remain partial to the earthy scent, others find it unpleasant, comparing the odor to that of unwashed feet.[22]

Traditional medicine[edit]

Valerian (V. officinalis) essential oil

Although valerian is a common traditional medicine used for treating insomnia, there is no good evidence it is effective for this purpose.[23] Valerian has not been shown to be helpful in treating restless leg syndrome[24] or anxiety.[25]

The European Medicines Agency (EMA) approved the health claim that Valerian can be used as a traditional herbal medicine to relieve mild nervous tension and to aid sleep; EMA stated that although there is insufficient evidence from clinical studies, its effectiveness as a dried extract is considered plausible.[26]

Oral forms[edit]

A bottle of Valerian capsules

Oral forms are available in both standardized and unstandardized forms. Standardized products may be preferable considering the wide variation of the chemicals in the dried root, as noted above. When standardized, it is done so as a percentage of valerenic acid or valeric acid.

Adverse effects[edit]

Because the compounds in Valerian produce central nervous system depression, they should not be used with other depressants, such as ethanol (drinking alcohol), benzodiazepines, barbiturates, opiates, kava, or antihistamine drugs.[27][28][29] Although no liver problems are normally encountered with valerian use, there have been case studies in which hepatotoxicity has been observed in apparently hypersensitive individuals following short-term use (e.g., one month).[30][31]

As an unregulated product, the concentration, contents, and potential contaminants in Valerian preparations cannot be easily determined. Because of this uncertainty and the potential for toxicity in the fetus and hepatotoxicity in the mother, Valerian use is discouraged during pregnancy.[27][28]

Effect on cats[edit]

Valerian root is a cat attractant in a way similar to catnip.[32]

Floral symmetry[edit]

Valerian is unusual in having flowers with "handedness", that is, having neither radial nor bilateral symmetry.[33]

Weed[edit]

Valerian is considered an invasive species in many jurisdictions outside its natural range, including the US state of Connecticut where it is officially banned,[34] and in New Brunswick, Canada where it is listed as a plant of concern.[35]

Image gallery[edit]

  • 19th-century illustration of Valeriana officinalis

  • Illustration of V. officinalis from Atlas des plantes de France,

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^Although many sources list "catinine" as an alkaloid present in extracts from the root of Valeriana officinalis, those sources are incorrect. The correct spelling is "chatinine". It was discovered by S. Waliszewski in See: S. Waliszewski (15 March ) L'Union pharmaceutique, page Abstracts of this article appeared in: "Chatinine, alcaloïde de la racine de valériane" Répertoire de pharmacie, series 3, vol. 3, pp. –Archived at the Wayback Machine (April 10, )&#;; American Journal of Pharmacy, vol. 66, p. Archived at the Wayback Machine (June ).
  2. ^Isovaleramide does not appear to be a naturally occurring component of valerian plants; rather, it seems to be an artifact of the extraction process; specifically, it is produced by treating aqueous extracts of valerian with ammonia.[10]
  3. ^Isovaleric acid does not appear to be a natural constituent of V. officinalis; rather, it is a breakdown product that is created during the extraction process or by enzymatic hydrolysis during (improper) storage.[11]

References[edit]

  1. ^ abc"Valerian". Office of Dietary Supplements, US National Institutes of Health. 15 March Retrieved 2 April
  2. ^Van Der Kooi, C. J.; Pen, I.; Staal, M.; Stavenga, D. G.; Elzenga, J. T. M. (). "Competition for pollinators and intra-communal spectral dissimilarity of flowers". Plant Biology. 18 (1): 56– doi/plb PMID&#; Archived(PDF) from the original on
  3. ^Thorpe, Benjamin () Northern MythologyArchived at the Wayback Machine. Lumley. Vol. 2. pp. 64–
  4. ^Torsten Bergsten (). "Two Letters by Pilgram Marpeck". Mennonite Quarterly Review. 32:
  5. ^Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (). "Valerian"&#;. Encyclopædia Britannica. 27 (11th&#;ed.). Cambridge University Press. p.&#;
  6. ^ abGrieve, Maud (). A Modern Herbal: The Medicinal, Culinary, Cosmetic and Economic Properties, Cultivation and Folk-lore of Herbs, Grasses, Fungi, Shrubs, & Trees with All Their Modern Scientific Uses, Volume 2.
  7. ^Harper, Douglas. "valerian". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  8. ^Latin definition for: valeo, valere, valui, valitusArchived at the Wayback Machine. latin-dictionary.net
  9. ^ abcdefFereidoon Shahidi and Marian Naczk, Phenolics in food and nutraceuticals (Boca Raton, Florida, USA: CRC Press, ), pp. –Archived at the Wayback MachineISBN&#;
  10. ^Balandrin, M. F.; Van Wagenen, B. C.; Cordell, G. A. (). "Valerian-derived sedative agents. II. Degradation of Valmane-derived valepotriates in ammoniated hydroalcoholic tinctures". Journal of Toxicology: Toxin Reviews. 14 (2): 88– doi/
  11. ^pp. 22 and Archived at the Wayback Machine of Peter J. Houghton, Valerian: the genus Valeriana (Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Harwood Academic Press, ) ISBN&#;
  12. ^Yuan CS, Mehendale S, Xiao Y, Aung HH, Xie JT, Ang-Lee MK (). "The gamma-aminobutyric acidergic effects of valerian and valerenic acid on rat brainstem neuronal activity". Anesth Analg. 98 (2): –8, table of contents. CiteSeerX&#; doi/ANEA5. PMID&#; S2CID&#;
  13. ^Wills, R.B.H. & Shohet, D. (July ). "Changes in valerenic acids content of valerian root (Valeriana officinalis L. s.l.) during long-term storage". Food Chemistry. (1): – doi/j.foodchem
  14. ^ abMarder M, Viola H, Wasowski C, Fernández S, Medina JH, Paladini AC (). "6-methylapigenin and hesperidin: new valeriana flavonoids with activity on the CNS". Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 75 (3): – doi/S(03) PMID&#; S2CID&#;
  15. ^Fernández S, Wasowski C, Paladini AC, Marder M (). "Sedative and sleep-enhancing properties of linarin, a flavonoid-isolated from Valeriana officinalis". Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 77 (2): – doi/j.pbb PMID&#; S2CID&#;
  16. ^Holzl J, Godau P (). "Receptor binding studies with Valeriana officinalis on the benzodiazepine receptor". Planta Medica. 55 (7): doi/s
  17. ^Mennini T, Bernasconi P, et&#;al. (). "In vitro study in the interaction of extracts and pure compounds from Valerian officinalis roots with GABA, benzodiazepine and barbiturate receptors". Fitoterapia. 64: –
  18. ^Lacher, Svenja K.; Mayer, Ralf; Sichardt, Kathrin; Nieber, Karen; Müller, Christa E. (). "Interaction of valerian extracts of different polarity with adenosine receptors: Identification of isovaltrate as an inverse agonist at A1 receptors". Biochemical Pharmacology. 73 (2): – doi/j.bcp PMID&#;
  19. ^Patočka, Jiří; Jakl, Jiří (). "Biomedically relevant chemical constituents of Valeriana officinalis". Journal of Applied Biomedicine. 8 (1): 11– doi/vz.
  20. ^Dietz BM, Mahady GB, Pauli GF, Farnsworth NR (). "Valerian extract and valerenic acid are partial agonists of the 5-HT5a receptor in vitro". Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (2): –7. doi/j.molbrainres PMC&#; PMID&#;
  21. ^"Valerian". Botanical.com. Archived from the original on Retrieved
  22. ^Harrington, H.D., Edible Native Plants Of The Rocky Mountains, The University of New Mexico Press, , LCCN , p.
  23. ^Leach MJ, Page AT (). "Herbal medicine for insomnia: A systematic review and meta-analysis". Sleep Med Rev (Review). 24: 1– doi/j.smrv PMID&#;
  24. ^Bega D, Malkani R (). "Alternative treatment of restless legs syndrome: an overview of the evidence for mind-body interventions, lifestyle interventions, and neutraceuticals". Sleep Med. (Review). 17: 99– doi/j.sleep PMID&#;
  25. ^Miyasaka LS, Atallah AN, Soares BG (). "Valerian for anxiety disorders". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (Systematic review) (4): CD doi/CDpub2. PMID&#;
  26. ^"European Medicines Agency - Find medicine - Valerianae radix". www.ema.europa.eu. Archived from the original on Retrieved
  27. ^ abKlepser TB, Klepser ME (). "Unsafe and potentially safe herbal therapies". Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 56 (): –38, quiz – doi/ajhp/ PMID&#;
  28. ^ abWong AH, Smith M, Boon HS (). "Herbal remedies in psychiatric practice". Arch Gen Psychiatry. 55 (): – doi/archpsyc PMID&#;
  29. ^Miller LG (). "Herbal medicines. Selected clinical considerations focusing on known or potential drug-herb interactions". Arch Intern Med. (): – doi/archinte PMID&#;
  30. ^Daniel Cohen and Yanisa Toro (). "A Case of Valerian-associated Hepatotoxicity". Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology. 42 (8): – doi/MCG.0be PMID&#;CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  31. ^ThemistoklisVassiliadis at al. (). "Valeriana hepatotoxicity". Sleep Medicine. 10 (8): doi/j.sleep PMID&#;CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  32. ^Bol, Sebastiaan (16 March ). "Responsiveness of cats (Felidae) to silver vine (Actinidia polygama), Tatarian honeysuckle (Lonicera tatarica), valerian (Valeriana officinalis) and catnip (Nepeta cataria)". BMC Veterinary Research. 13 (1): doi/s PMC&#; PMID&#;
  33. ^Weberling, Focko (). Morphology of Flowers and Inflorescences. Cambridge University Press. p.&#; ISBN&#;.
  34. ^"USDA PLANTS Database – Connecticut State-listed Noxious Weeds". Archived from the original on
  35. ^New Brunswick Invasive Species Council (). Field Guide to 12 Invasive Plants of Concern in New Brunswick(PDF). Archived from the original on CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)

External links[edit]

Insomnia pharmacotherapies

GABAARPAMs
  • Benzodiazepines:Brotizolam
  • Cinolazepam
  • Climazolam
  • Clorazepate
  • Doxefazepam
  • Estazolam
  • Etizolam
  • Flunitrazepam
  • Flurazepam
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  • Haloxazolam
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  • Lormetazepam
  • Midazolam
  • Nimetazepam
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  • Quazepam
  • Temazepam
  • Triazolam; Nonbenzodiazepines/Z-drugs:Eszopiclone
  • Zaleplon
  • Zolpidem
  • Zopiclone; Others:Alcohols (e.g., ethchlorvynol, amylene hydrate, ethanol)
  • Barbiturates (e.g., amobarbital, pentobarbital, phenobarbital, secobarbital)
  • Bromides (e.g., potassium bromide, sodium bromide)
  • Carbamates (e.g., meprobamate)
  • Chloral hydrate
  • Clomethiazole
  • Kava
  • Paraldehyde
  • Piperidinediones (e.g., glutethimide)
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  • Sulfonmethane
  • Valerian
Antihistamines
(H1Rinverse agonists)
OXRantagonists
MTRagonists
Miscellaneous
  • Antipsychotics (e.g., quetiapine, olanzapine, chlorpromazine)
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  • Hops
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  • Menthyl isovalerate
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  • Opioids (e.g., hydrocodone, oxycodone, morphine)
  • Passion flower
  • Scopolamine
  • Serotonin precursors (tryptophan, 5-HTP)
  • Sodium oxybate (GHB)
  • Sympatholytics (e.g., clonidine, guanfacine)
  • TCAs (e.g., amitriptyline, doxepin, trimipramine)
  • TeCAs (e.g., mirtazapine)
  • Theanine
  • Trazodone
  • Valnoctamide

GABAA receptor positive modulators

Alcohols
Barbiturates
Benzodiazepines
Carbamates
Flavonoids
Imidazoles
Kava constituents
Monoureides
Neuroactive steroids
Nonbenzodiazepines
Phenols
Piperidinediones
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Quinazolinones
Volatiles/gases
Others/unsorted
  • 3-Hydroxybutanal
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  • Avermectins (e.g., ivermectin)
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  • Carbamazepine
  • Chloralose
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  • Dihydroergolines (e.g., dihydroergocryptine, dihydroergosine, dihydroergotamine, ergoloid (dihydroergotoxine))
  • DS2
  • Efavirenz
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  • Fluoxetine
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  • Hopantenic acid
  • Lanthanum
  • Lavender oil
  • Lignans (e.g., 4-O-methylhonokiol, honokiol, magnolol, obovatol)
  • Loreclezole
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  • Monastrol
  • Niacin
  • Niacinamide
  • Org 25,
  • Phenytoin
  • Propanidid
  • Retigabine (ezogabine)
  • Safranal
  • Seproxetine
  • Stiripentol
  • Sulfonylalkanes (e.g., sulfonmethane (sulfonal), tetronal, trional)
  • Terpenoids (e.g., borneol)
  • Topiramate
  • Valerian constituents (e.g., isovaleric acid, isovaleramide, valerenic acid, valerenol)

See also:Receptor/signaling modulators • GABA receptor modulators • GABA metabolism/transport modulators

Serotonin receptormodulators

5-HT1
5-HT1A
  • Agonists:8-OH-DPAT
  • Adatanserin
  • Amphetamine
  • Antidepressants (e.g., etoperidone, hydroxynefazodone, nefazodone, trazodone, triazoledione, vilazodone, vortioxetine)
  • Atypical antipsychotics (e.g., aripiprazole, asenapine, brexpiprazole, cariprazine, clozapine, lurasidone, quetiapine, ziprasidone)
  • Azapirones (e.g., buspirone, eptapirone, gepirone, perospirone, tandospirone)
  • Bay R
  • Befiradol
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  • Cannabidiol
  • Dimemebfe
  • Dopamine
  • Ebalzotan
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  • Ergolines (e.g., bromocriptine, cabergoline, dihydroergotamine, ergotamine, lisuride, LSD, methylergometrine (methylergonovine), methysergide, pergolide)
  • F
Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valerian_(herb)
valerian -valerian root reviews,fact \u0026 warning

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